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Research Papers: Ocean Renewable Energy

Loading and Blade Deflection of a Tidal Turbine in Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoxian Guo, Jianmin Yang

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced
Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration,
Shanghai 200240, China

Zhen Gao, Torgeir Moan

Department of Marine Technology,
Norwegian University of Science and
Technology,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway

Xin Li

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced
Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail address: lixin@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 8, 2017; final manuscript received November 1, 2018; published online January 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Antonio F. de Falcao.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(4), 041902 (Jan 17, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4041998 History: Received November 08, 2017; Revised November 01, 2018

A coupled numerical model has been developed and validated to study the fluid–structural interaction responses of a three-bladed tidal turbine in aligned waves and current. The unsteady blade element momentum (BEM) theory was combined with modal analysis for hydro-elastic calculation. Both the loading and deflection of the blade were studied. The dynamic loading on the blade due to structural deformation was much smaller than the wave-induced loading under linear wave conditions for the given condition. The linear response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the loads and the blade tip deflections were obtained and used to predict the linear responses. Although both sum- and difference-frequency responses can be identified from time domain simulations, the wave-induced load and the deflection of the blade are dominated by the first-order contributions. The maximum deflection of the blade tip could reach 1.3 m (203% of the means) in the flapwise direction and 0.35 m (210% of the mean) in the edgewise direction with a wave peak period of 11.3 s and a significant wave height of 5.5 m.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The resultant velocity seen by the blade section

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Fig. 2

Schematic of distributions of load and blade deflections along the blade

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Fig. 4

Internal structure of a typical blade section

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Fig. 3

Flowchart of the coupled hydro-structural model in one time-step

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the simulation domain

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Fig. 6

First four predicted in water mode shapes for the 8.75 m blade. The mode shapes were normalized with the tip deflection to ensure that the tip deflection becomes 1.

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Fig. 10

Normalized steady blade tip positions with different TSRs in current-only cases. The TSR increases from 2.0 to 8.0. The y presents the edgewise direction, and x is the downstream direction (see Fig. 1). The radius of the rotor (R) is 10 m.

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Fig. 11

Time series of torque (a), thrust (b), and blade bending moments (c) with V = 2.5 m s−1, Ω = 11.48 rpm, T = 4 s, and H = 2 m (reg 1)

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Fig. 12

Time series of torque (a), thrust (b), and blade bending moments (c) with V = 2.5 m s−1, Ω = 11.48 rpm, T = 10 s, and H = 2 m (reg 2)

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Fig. 13

Time series of torque (a), thrust (b), and blade bending moments (c) with V = 2.5 m s−1, Ω = 11.48 rpm, T = 15 s, and H = 2 m (reg 3)

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Fig. 7

Power coefficient Cp as a function of TSR for predictions with and without blade elasticity, compared with the experimental data

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Fig. 8

Thrust coefficient CT as a function of TSR for predictions with and without blade elasticity, compared with the experimental data

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Fig. 9

Normalized flapwise blade bending moment coefficient as a function of the inverse of the TSR for current-only cases

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Fig. 14

Edgewise and flapwise blade deflections in one wave period, with V = 2.5 m s−1, T = 10 s, and H = 2 m (reg 2). The lines represent ten moments in half of the wave period (10 s) with a time interval of ΔT = 0.5 s. The red dashed line is the steady mean position of the blade: (a) edgewise and (b) flapwise.

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Fig. 16

Time series of edgewise (a) and flapwise (b) blade tip deflections in regular waves with V = 2.5 m s−1 and Ω = 11.48 rpm: (a) edgewise and (b) flapwise

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Fig. 17

Time series of edgewise (a) and flapwise (b) blade tip velocities in regular waves with V = 2.5 m s−1 and Ω = 11.48 rpm: (a) edgewise and (b) flapwise

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Fig. 18

Incident wave spectrum, and the RAOs of blade bending moments and blade tip deflections with V = 2.5 m s−1, and a rotational speed of 11.45 rpm (TSR = 4.8): (a) incident wave, (b) edgewise blade bending moment, (c) flapwise blade bending moment, (d) edgewise blade tip deflection, and (e) flapwise blade tip deflection

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Fig. 21

Scatters of the blade tip positions in the YZ plane under irregular wave conditions, with a peak period of 6.0 s and significant wave height of 1.5 m (IRR1) for a duration of 3 h

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Fig. 22

Scatters of the blade tip positions in the YZ plane under irregular wave conditions, with the peak period of 11.3 s and significant wave height of 5.5 m (IRR2) for a duration of 3 h

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Fig. 15

Traces of the three different spanwise nodes in the yz plane in one wave period for three regular wave cases

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Fig. 19

The target and generated wave spectra, and the response spectra of the blade bending moments and blade tip deflections, with V = 2.5 m s−1, Ω = 11.48 rpm, Tp = 6.0 s, and Hs = 1.5 m (IRR1). The blue lines were obtained using a time domain simulation, and the red lines were generated by a frequency domain approach based on the RAOs shown in Fig. 18: (a) incident wave, (b) edgewise blade bending moment, (c) flapwise blade bending moment, (d) edgewise blade tip motion, and (e) flapwise blade tip motion.

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Fig. 20

The target and generated wave spectra, and the response spectra of the blade bending moments and blade tip deflections, with V = 2.5 m s−1, Ω = 11.4 8 rpm, Tp = 11.3 s, and Hs = 5.5 m (IRR1). The blue lines were obtained using a time domain simulation, and the red lines were generated by a frequency domain approach based on the RAOs shown in Fig. 18: (a) incident wave, (b) edgewise blade bending moment, (c) flapwise blade bending moment, (d) edgewise blade tip motion, and (e) flapwise blade tip motion.

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