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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Large-Scale Hull Loading of Sea Ice, Lake Ice, and Ice in Tuktoyaktuk Harbour

[+] Author and Article Information
R. E. Gagnon, S. J. Jones

Institute for Marine Dynamics, National Research Council, St. John’s, NF A1B 3T5, Canada

R. Frederking

Canadian Hydraulics Center, National Research Council, Ottawa, ON K1A OR6, Canada

P. A. Spencer, D. M. Masterson

Sandwell Engineering Inc., Calgary AB T2P 3K2, Canada

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 123(4), 159-169 (May 17, 2001) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1408941 History: Received January 25, 2001; Revised May 17, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Ice , Failure , Lakes , Hull , Pressure , Sea ice
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References

Sandwell Inc., 1997, “Damaged Sea Ice,” Final Report to National Research Council, Institute for Marine Dynamics, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July, IMD Report CR-1997-09.
Gagnon, R. E., Jones, S. J., Frederking, R., Spencer, P. A., and Masterson, D. M., 1999, “Large-Scale Hull Loading of Ice in Tuktoyaktuk Harbour,” 18th Int. Conf. on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, St. John’s, Newfoundland, ASME Paper No. OMAE99/P&A-1129 (CD-ROM Proc.).
Jones, S. J., Spencer, P. A., Masterson, D. M., and Gagnon, R. E., 1996, “Flaking Tests to Measure Large-Scale Strength of Ice, Northern Sea Route; Future & Prospects,” Proc. INSROP Symposium, Tokyo ’95 (IST ’95), October 1–6, 1995, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 121–129.
Frederking, R., 1996, “Large-Scale Hull Loading of First-Year Sea Ice; Preliminary Analysis of Stress Distributions,” National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Hydraulics Center, Technical Report HYD-TR-022.
Timco,  G. W., and Frederking,  R. M. W., 1990, “Compressive Strength of Sea Ice Sheets,” Cold Regions Sci. Technol. 17, pp. 227–240.
Barber, F. P., 1968, “On the Water of Tuktoyaktuk Harbour,” Manuscript Report Series No. 9, Marine Sciences Branch, Department of Energy Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Gagnon, R. E., Frederking, R., Jones, S. J., Spencer, P., and Masterson, D. M., 1998, “Large-Scale Hull Loading of First-Year Sea Ice,” INSROP Working Paper No. 114.
Transport Canada, 1995, “Equivalent Standards for the Construction of Arctic Ships,” Transport Canada Report TP 12260, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Kendrick, A., 1996, “Load Formulation for Structural Design,” Report to Ship Safety, Prairie & Northern Region, Transport Canada, May.
Masterson,  D. M., and Frederking,  R. M. W., 1993, “Local Contact Pressures in Ship/Ice and Structure/Ice Interactions,” Cold Regions Sci. Technol. 21, pp. 169–185.
Masterson, D. M., Spencer, P. A., and Frederking, R. M. W., 1994, “Medium-Scale Uniform Pressure Tests on First-Year Sea ice, 1993,” Offshore Technology Conference, May 2–5, Houston, TX, Paper OTC 7614, pp. 519–530.
Masterson, D. M., Frederking, R. M. W., Jordaan, I. J., and Spencer, P. A., 1993, “Description of Multi-Year Ice Indentation Tests at Hobson’s Choice Ice Island—1990,” Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, Vol. 4, p. 145–155.

Figures

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Schematic diagram of the actuator/indentor assembly
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The expanded metal grid indentor used to damage the ice
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A schematic diagram showing the complete test setup, the actuators, indentor, gantry, and trench
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Finite element mesh used for deformation and stress analysis
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Finite element mesh showing elements selected for medium-sized damage zone
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Contour plot of x deformations of nodes for no-damage case and elastic modulus of 1 GPa
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Contour plots of major (a) and minor (b) principal stresses for no damage zone (elastic modulus 1 GPa)
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Contour plots of major (a) and minor (b) principal stresses for medium damage zone (damage modulus 0.01 GPa and elastic modulus 1 GPa)
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Failure stress as a function of stress rate for all tests
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Damage pressure and failure stress as a function of time for the high-speed tests. Note that the number next to a point refers to the test number, d refers to damage, and f means failure.
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Damage pressure-failure stress relation, high-speed tests—(a) data uncorrected for stress-rate, (b) data corrected for stress-rate of 10 MPa/s
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Damage pressure and failure stress as a function of time for the low-speed tests. Note that the number next to a point refers to the test number, d refers to damage, and f means failure.
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Failure stress against damage pressure relation for the low-speed tests
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Damage pressure-failure stress relation with a reduced contact area for the high-speed tests
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Thin section of the ice viewed between crossed polaroids at Tuktoyaktuk showing a large grain size of several centimeters
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Spall propagation image sequence T5f. The major feature (white V-shape) is a horizontal linear spall developing outwards from the indentor. An expansion spall (outlined) can be seen developing from a pre-existing crack some distance out from the indentor and ahead of the developing horizontal linear spall. The time between successive images is 20 ms.
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Failure stress of first-year sea ice as a function of contact area for aspect ratios from 0.3:1 to 13:1 from the Resolute tests
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Failure stress as a function of loading stress rate, for flatjack and rigid indentor loading obtained during the Phase I, Calgary, tests

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