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Ocean Renewable Energy

Individual Pitch Control of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Fredrik Sandquist1

Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology,  Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway e-mail: Geir.moe@ntnu.nofredrik.sandquist@ntnu.noFaculty of Engineering Science and Technology,  Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway; Institute for Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK e-mail: olimpo.anaya-lara@eee.strath.ac.ukfredrik.sandquist@ntnu.no

Geir Moe, Olimpo Anaya-Lara

Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology,  Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway e-mail: Geir.moe@ntnu.noFaculty of Engineering Science and Technology,  Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway; Institute for Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK e-mail: olimpo.anaya-lara@eee.strath.ac.uk

1

Address all correspondence to this author.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 134(3), 031901 (Feb 01, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005376 History: Received December 04, 2008; Revised June 15, 2011; Published February 01, 2012; Online February 01, 2012

An individual pitch controller (IPC) based on the multivariable Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) concept is presented to reduce loads in megawatt-size wind turbines. Most turbines currently installed use collective pitch control to pitch the blades in order to limit the excess of wind power and to regulate the rotor speed above rated conditions. However, research has shown that IPC control is much more effective to reduce blade loads. Both collective and individual pitch control are implemented for the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. Simulation results are used to illustrate the advantage of the IPC approach, and its ability to reduce much of the flap-wise blade motion is demonstrated.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Operating regions of a variable-speed wind turbine

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Figure 2

Wind turbine model input and output signals

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Figure 3

The Coleman system

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Figure 4

WT open-loop key responses—constant collective pitch and zero wind shear. Note that the blade flapping motions are not constant. The individual Coleman coordinates for the pitch are zero and non zero for the blade flap.

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Figure 5

WT open-loop key waveforms with individual pitch input calculated as described above

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Figure 6

WT singular values plot from individual pitch to generator speed and blade flap

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Figure 7

The control system

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Figure 8

Collective pitch measuring generator speed. Steady wind field with steps in the hub height wind speed.

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Figure 9

Individual pitch measuring generator speed and flap at the blade tip. Steady wind field with steps in the hub height wind speed.

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Figure 10

Individual pitch measuring generator speed and blade root moment. Steady wind field with steps in the hub height wind speed.

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Figure 11

Collective pitch measuring generator speed. Steady wind field with steps in the vertical wind shear.

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Figure 12

Individual pitch measuring generator speed and flap at the blade tip. Steady wind field with steps in the vertical wind shear.

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Figure 13

Collective pitch measuring generator speed in a stochastic wind field

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Figure 14

Individual pitch measuring generator speed and flap at the blade tip in a stochastic wind field

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