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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Evaluation of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) Behavior For Axially Notched X65 and X80 Line Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Shinobu Kawaguchi, Naoto Hagiwara, Tomoki Masuda

Pipeline Technology Center, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan

Masao Toyoda

Dept. of Manufacturing Science, Osaka Univ. 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 126(4), 350-357 (Mar 07, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1834619 History: Received March 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online March 07, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Topics: Pipes , Stress , Equations
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References

American Petroleum Institute (API), 2000, “Specification for Line Pipe,” API SPEC 5L.
Chaudhari,  V., Ritzmann,  H. P., Wellnitz,  G., Hillenbrand,  H. G., and Willings,  V., 1995, “German Gas Pipeline First to Use New Generation Line Pipe,” Oil Gas J., January 2, pp. 40–46.
Glover, A. G., Horsley, D. J., and Dorling, D. V., 1998, “Pipeline Design and Construction Using Higher Strength Steels,” Proc. 2nd International Pipeline Conference (IPC1998), Calgary, Alberta, Canada, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 2, pp. 659–664.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2000, “Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems,” B31.8.
Barsanti, L., Hillenbrand, H. G., Mannucci, G., Demofonti, G., and Harris, D., 2002, “Possible Use of New Materials for High Pressure Line Pipe Construction: An Opening on X100 Grade Steel,” IPC2002-27089, Proc. 4th International Pipeline Conference (IPC2002), Calgary, Alberta, Canada, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Glover, A., 2002, “Application of Grade 550 (X80) and Grade 690 (X100) in Arctic Climates,” Proc. International Pipe Dreamer’s Conference, Toyoda, M. and Denys, R., Eds., Yokohama, Japan, Scientific Surveys Ltd, UK, pp. 33–52.
Wilkowski,  G. M., 2000, “Leak-Before-Break: What Does It Really Mean?” J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 122, pp. 267–272.
Kiefner, J. F., Maxey, W. A., Eiber, R. J., and Duffy, A. R., 1973, “Failure Stress Levels of Flaws in Pressurized Cylinders,” Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing, ASTM STP 536, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 461–481.
Maxey, W. A., 1974, “Fracture Initiation, Propagation and Arrest,” Proc. 5th Symposium on Line Pipe Research, Houston, Texas, American Gas Association, Paper J.
Dugdale,  D. S., 1960, “Yielding of Steel Sheets Containing Slits,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 8, pp. 100–104.
Hahn,  G. T., Sarrate,  M., and Rosenfield,  A. R., 1969, “Criteria for Crack Extension in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels,” International Journal of Fracture Mechanics,5, No. 3, pp. 187–210.
Folias, E. S., 1964, “The Stresses in a Cylindrical Shell Containing an Axial Crack,” ARL 64 -174, Aerospace Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, U.S. Air Force.
Wilkowski, G. M., Olsen, R. J., and Scott, P. M., 1997, “State-of-the-Art Report on Piping Fracture Mechanics,” NUREG/CR-6540, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, pp. 2.58–2.70.
Maxey, W. A., Kiefner, J. F., Eiber, R. J., and Duffey, A. R., 1972, “Ductile Fracture Initiation, Propagation, and Arrest in Cylindrical Vessels,” Fracture Toughness, Proceedings of the 1971 National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics, Part II, ASTM STP 514, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 70–81.
Wilkowski,  G. M., Maxey,  W. A., and Eiber,  R. J., 1980, “Use of the DWTT Energy for Predicting Ductile Fracture Behavior in Controlled-Rolled Steel Line Pipes,” Can. Metall. Q., 19-1, pp. 59–77.
Wilkowski, G. M., and Maxey, W. A., 1983, “Review and Applications of the Electric Potential Method for Measuring Crack Growth in Specimens, Flawed Pipes and Pressure Vessels,” Fracture Mechanics: 14th Symposium—Volume II: Testing and Applications, J. C. Lewis and G. Sines, eds., ASTM STP 791, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. II-266–II-294.

Figures

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Temperature transition curves for CVN energy and shear area percent with major fracture surfaces for X80-D
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An illustration for an axial through-wall notch (units in mm)
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Internal patch for through-wall notch tests
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Setting up of d-c EP measurement
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An illustration for an axial part-through-wall notch (units in mm)
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Typical fractured pipe after TW notch test
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(a) Fracture surfaces of the X65 pipes; (b) Fracture surfaces of the X80 pipes
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Determination of the hoop stress for ductile crack initiation based on d-c EP data from Probe A when initial notch length was 400 mm for X65-A
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The relationship between the axial TW notch length and hoop stress of the test pipe when the initial notch length was 400 mm for X65-A
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Determination of the LBB criterion for the initial TW notch length from full-scale test results for X65-A
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(a) The relationship between the initial TW notch length and normalized stress for the X65 pipes; (b) The relationship between the initial TW notch length and normalized stress for the X80 pipes
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Fractured pipes of part-through-wall (PTW) notch tests for X80-D
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Measured ductile crack velocity and decompression behavior for the PTW notch test resulting in rupture (Case 1)
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The correlation between Gc from the TW notch test results and Cv/Ac
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(a) Instrumented Charpy test results for the X65 pipes; (b) Instrumented Charpy test results for the X80 pipes

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