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Research Papers

Effects of Avoidance of Heavy Weather on the Wave-Induced Load on Ships

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhi Shu

Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim N7491, Norwayshu@marine.ntnu.no

Torgeir Moan

Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim N7491, Norwaytorgeir.moan@marine.ntnu.no

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 130(2), 021001 (Feb 28, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2779331 History: Received October 10, 2006; Revised May 23, 2007; Published February 28, 2008

This paper is concerned with evaluating the effect of heavy weather avoidance on the long-term wave-induced loads on ships. Two hydrodynamic codes, VERES based on a 2D strip theory and WASIM based on a 3D Rankine panel method, are employed to calculate the wave-induced loads and motions on various vessels. Two models for heavy weather avoidance are envisaged. The first one is based on the assumption that operational criteria relevant to vertical acceleration, green water, and bottom slamming are fulfilled. The second one is based on the assumption that the sea state forecasts are available to the shipmaster and that rerouting is made. Based on the first model, the effect of the heavy weather avoidance on the long-term wave-induced hull girder loads is evaluated. In particular, the effect of hydrodynamic analysis methods and wave scatter diagram are also assessed. The calculated values are compared with those given in ship rules. The results show that several factors should be critically assessed in evaluating the accuracy of the ship rule values.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Contour diagram of a significant wave height during a storm and alternative bulk carrier routes between Canada and Europe

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Figure 2

Transfer function of the vertical bending moment amidships of VLCC in head sea

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Figure 3

Transfer function of the vertical bending moment amidships of a new generation product tanker in head sea

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Figure 5

Limiting significant wave height with respect to heading angle (VLCC, full load condition)

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Figure 6

Limiting significant wave height with respect to heading angle (product tanker, full load condition)

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Figure 7

Limiting significant wave height with respect to heading angle (bulk carrier, full load condition)

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Figure 4

Transfer function of the vertical bending moment amidships of a bulk carrier in head sea

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