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Research Papers: Structures and Safety Reliability

Average Properties of the Largest Waves in Hurricane Camille

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Santo

Centre for Offshore Research & Engineering,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
1 Engineering Drive 2,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: ceehs@nus.edu.sg

R. Eatock Taylor

Centre for Offshore Research & Engineering,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
1 Engineering Drive 2,
Singapore 117576;
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

Y. S. Choo

Centre for Offshore Research & Engineering,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
1 Engineering Drive 2,
Singapore 117576

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean Offshore and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 4, 2010; final manuscript received March 15, 2012; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Arvid Naess.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 135(1), 011602 (Feb 22, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: OMAE-10-1100; doi: 10.1115/1.4006930 History: Received October 04, 2010; Revised March 15, 2012

Ocean waves are known to be both random in time and nonlinear. Surface elevation time histories measured in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Camille in 1969 are re-analyzed. The average shapes of large crests and deep troughs in time are shown to be close to symmetric around the instant when the maximum (or minimum) occurs, with only slight evidence of asymmetry from wave breaking in the time histories. There is considerable vertical asymmetry with higher and sharper crests and smaller and more rounded troughs. Overall, the analysis supports the use of a focused wave group based on the scaled autocorrelation function (NewWave) as proposed by Lindgren and Boccotti, with sum harmonic corrections. There is a very small second order difference setup for both large crests and troughs, consistent with considerable directional spreading in the hurricane sea-state. This spreading is likely to be larger than that usually assumed for nontropical winter storms. The spectral tail is shown to have a decay rate proportional to –4.5 power law midway between the classical JONSWAP (Phillips) –5 form and the –4 slope proposed by Battjes et al. (1987, “A Reanalysis of the Spectra Observed in JONSWAP,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17(8), pp. 1288–1295) as a correction to JONSWAP.

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Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Topics: Waves , Shapes
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Average largest crest and trough profiles

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Fig. 2

Examples of the three largest crest time histories, the 20th largest, and the average of the largest 20

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Fig. 3

Examples of the three largest trough time histories, the 20th largest, and the average of the largest 20

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Fig. 4

Wave horizontal asymmetry comparison

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Fig. 5

C-T to T-C wave height comparison

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Fig. 6

Sorted Hilbert crests and troughs comparison

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Fig. 7

Average long bound wave profile

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Fig. 8

Average long bound wave with different upper cutoff frequencies (ω/ωp as shown)

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Fig. 9

Average measured crest, individual harmonic fit, and a fit using averaged coefficients

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Fig. 10

Average measured trough, individual harmonic fit, and a fit using averaged coefficients

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the measured versus Lindgren variance profile

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Fig. 14

Wave spectrum in log scale

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Fig. 13

Wave spectrum from Camille

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Fig. 12

Time history of the mean of largest crests with bands of ±2 standard deviations of the estimate of the mean, based on Lindgren’s model

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