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Research Papers: Structures and Safety Reliability

Experimental Investigation of Tsunami Bore Forces on Vertical Walls

[+] Author and Article Information
I. N. Robertson

e-mail: ianrob@hawaii.edu

K. Paczkowski

e-mail: krystian.paczkowski@gmail.com

H. R. Riggs

e-mail: riggs@hawaii.edu

A. Mohamed

e-mail: abdulla.mohamed@aecom.com
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of Hawaii at Manoa,
2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 383,
Honolulu, HI 96822

Contributed by the Ocean Offshore and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Manuscript received March 31, 2011; final manuscript received July 3, 2012; published online February 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Shan Huang.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 135(2), 021601 (Feb 25, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: OMAE-11-1030; doi: 10.1115/1.4023149 History: Received March 31, 2011; Revised July 03, 2012

A series of experiments have been carried out in the large wave flume (LWF) at Oregon State University to quantify tsunami bore forces on structures. These tests included “offshore” solitary waves, with heights up to 1.3 m, that traveled over a flat bottom, up a sloping beach, and breaking onto a flat reef. Standing water depths on the reef varied from 0.05 m to 0.3 m. Resulting bores on the reef measured up to approximately 0.8 m. After propagating along the reef, the bores struck a vertical wall. The resulting forces and pressures on the wall were measured. The test setup in the LWF is described, and the experimental results are reported. The results include forces and pressure distributions. Results show that the bores propagated with a Froude number of approximately 2 and that the forces follow Froude scaling. Finally, a design formula for the maximum impact force is given. The formula is shown to be an improvement over existing formulas found in the literature.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Beach slope and flat reef with solid wall specimen

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Fig. 2

View of instrumented aluminum wall and plywood extension to prevent overtopping

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Fig. 3

Wall instrumentation

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Fig. 4

Tsunami bore characteristics

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Fig. 7

Typical wall pressure distribution at peak lateral load for a 24.1 cm wave with 5 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 6

Force time history for 120.5 cm waves with 5 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 5

Force time history for 24.1 cm waves with 5 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 15

Froude number for all wave trials. Inset plot shows average values for each standing water depth.

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Fig. 14

Typical wall pressure distribution at peak lateral load for a 106.4 cm wave with 30 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 13

Typical wall pressure distribution at peak lateral load for a 53.2 cm wave with 30 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 12

Force time history for 106.4 cm waves with 30 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 11

Force time history for 53.2 cm waves with 30 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 10

Comparison of load cell and integrated pressure readings for a 106.4 cm wave with 30 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 9

Comparison of load cell and integrated pressure readings for a 24.1 cm wave with 5 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 8

Typical wall pressure distribution at peak lateral load for a 120.5 cm wave with 5 cm standing water on reef

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Fig. 16

Froude scaling verification

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Fig. 17

Schematic of bore impacting wall

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Fig. 22

Comparison of proposed approach with experimental data

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Fig. 18

Comparison between measured water height against wall at peak load and theoretical prediction

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Fig. 19

Bore height variability resulting from given solitary wave heights traveling over different standing water depths

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Fig. 20

Predicted force versus experimental force

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Fig. 21

Percentage error versus initial standing water depth for results in Fig. 20

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