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Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

Effects of Diameter to Thickness Ratio and External Pressure on the Velocity of Dynamic Buckle Propagation in Offshore Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Abedi

Professor

A. R. Mostafa Gharabaghi

Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
Sahand University of Technology,
Tabriz 51335/1996, Iran

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 30, 2012; final manuscript received July 8, 2013; published online September 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei Qiu.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 135(4), 041701 (Sep 23, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: OMAE-12-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4025143 History: Received January 30, 2012; Revised July 08, 2013

In this paper, a numerical study of the dynamic buckle propagation, initiated in long pipes under external pressure, is presented. For a long pipe, due to the high exerted pressure, local instability is likely to occur; therefore, the prevention of its occurrence and propagation are very important subjects in the design of pipelines. The 3D finite element modeling of the buckle propagation is presented by considering the inertia of the pipeline and the nonlinearity introduced by the contact between its collapsing walls. The buckling and collapse are assumed to take place in the vacuum. The numerical results of the nonlinear finite element analysis are compared with the experimental results obtained by Kyriakides and Netto (2000, “On the Dynamics of Propagating Buckle in Pipelines,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 37, pp. 6843–6878) from a study on the small-scale models. Comparison shows that the finite element results have very close agreement with those of the experimental study. Therefore, it is concluded that the finite element model is reliable enough to be used for nonlinear collapse analysis of the dynamic buckle propagation in the pipelines. In this study, the effects of external pressure on the velocity of dynamic buckle propagation for different diameter to thickness ratios are investigated. In addition, the mathematical relations, based on the initiation pressure, are derived for the velocity of buckle propagation considering the diameter to thickness ratio of the pipeline. Finally, a relation for the buckle velocity as a function of the pressure and diameter to thickness ratio is presented.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Kyriakides, S., and Corona, E., 2007, Mechanics of Offshore Pipelines, Vol. 1: Buckling and Collapse, Elsevier, Cambridge, MA.
Talebpour, R., Abedi, K., and Gharabaghi, A. R. M., 2006, “Buckle Propagation in Pipelines Under Non-Uniform Pressure,” Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Hamburg, Germany, Paper No. OMAE-92419.
Kyriakides, S., and Bobcock, C. D., 1981, “Experimantal Determination of the Propagation Pressure of Circular Pipes,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 103, pp. 328–336. [CrossRef]
Dyau, J. Y., and Kyriakides, S., 1993, “On the Propagation Pressure of Long Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 35, pp. 675–687. [CrossRef]
Kyriakides, S., and Bobcock, C. D., 1979, “On the Dynamics and the Arrest of the Propagation Buckle in Offshore Pipelines,” Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, Paper No. OTC 3479, pp. 1035–1040.
Song, H. W., and Tassoulas, J. L., 1993, “Finite Element Analysis of Propagating Buckles,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 36, pp. 3529–3552. [CrossRef]
Kyriakides, S., and Netto, T. A., 2000, “On the Dynamics of Propagating Buckle in Pipelines,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 37(7), pp. 6843–6867. [CrossRef]
Kyriakides, S., 1994,”Propagating Instabilities in Structures,” Adv. Appl. Mech., 30, pp. 67–189. [CrossRef]
Kyriakides, S., Park, T. D., and Netto, T. A., 1998, “On the Design of Integral Buckle Arrestors for Offshore Pipelines,” Appl. Ocean Res., 20, pp. 95–104. [CrossRef]
Chater, E., and Hutchinson, J. W., 1984 “On the Propagation of Bulges and Buckles,” J. Appl. Mech., 51, pp. 269–277. [CrossRef]
Kyriakides, S., and Bobcock, C. D., 1993, “Buckle Propagation Phenomena in Pipelines,” Collapse: The Buckling of Structures in Theory and Practise, J. M. T.Thompson and G. W.Hunt, eds., Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
Mesloh, R., Johns, T. G., and Sorenson, J. E., 1976, “The Propagation Buckle,” Proceedings of BOSS 76, Vol. 1, pp. 787–797.
Nogueria, A. C., and Tassoulas, J. L., 1995, “Finite Element Analysis of Buckle Propagation in Pipelines Under Tension,” Int. J Mech. Sci., 37(3), pp. 249–259. [CrossRef]
Zhi-Hong, I., and Yu-Ying, H., 1994, “On the Velocity of Buckle Propagation in a Beam on a Nonlinear Elastic Foundation,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 31(23), pp. 3315–3322. [CrossRef]
Hoo Fatt, M. S., 1998, “Plastic Failure of Pipelines,” Proceeding of the 8th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Montreal, Canada, Vol. 2, pp. 119–126.
Assanelli, A. P., Toscano, R. G., Johnson, D. H., and Dvorkin, E. N., 2000, “Experimental/Numerical Analysis of the Collapse Behavior of Steel Pipes,” Eng. Comput., 17, pp. 459–486. [CrossRef]
Lee, L.-H., and Kyriakides, S., 2004, “On the Arresting Efficiency of Slip-On Buckle Arrestors for Offshore Pipelines,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 46, pp. 1035–1055. [CrossRef]
Netto, T. A., 1998, “On the Dynamics and Arrest of Propagating Buckle in OffShore Pipelines,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin.
Kyriakides, S., Yeh, M. K., and Roach, D., 1984, “On the Determination of the Propagation Pressure of Long Circular Tubes,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 106, pp. 150–159. [CrossRef]
American Petroleum Institute, 1993, API Recommended Practice 1111: Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines (Limit State Design), 3rd ed, API, Washington, DC.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Deformed pipe in two states of (a) quasi-static and (b) dynamic form [11]

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Fig. 2

The applied imperfection on the studied pipe

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Fig. 3

The geometry of the studied pipe

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Fig. 4

The discretized models in the circumferential direction

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Fig. 5

The finite element model of the studied pipe

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Fig. 6

Ramberg–Osgood stress–strain curve for n = 12

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Fig. 7

The comparison of the numerical and experimental results (quasi-static buckle propagation)

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Fig. 8

The deformation of the studied pipe due to the quasi-static buckle propagation

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Fig. 9

The deformation of developed model due to dynamic buckle propagation

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Fig. 10

The longitudinal section of deformed shape

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Fig. 11

The impact indenter and subsequent dynamic buckle propagation of the pipe

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Fig. 12

Responses of displacement-time history for two selected nodes of pipe model

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Fig. 13

The comparison of the numerical and experimental results (dynamic buckle propagation)

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Fig. 14

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 27.9

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Fig. 15

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 15

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Fig. 16

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 20

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Fig. 17

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 35

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Fig. 18

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 40

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Fig. 19

The normalized velocity versus the normalized pressure obtained for D/t = 50

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Fig. 20

The buckle velocity as a function of pressure and diameter to thickness ratio

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Fig. 21

Pipe widthwise and lengthwise sections for D/t = 15

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Fig. 22

Pipe widthwise and lengthwise sections for D/t = 20

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Fig. 23

Pipe widthwise and lengthwise sections for D/t = 35

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Fig. 24

Pipe widthwise and lengthwise sections for D/t = 40

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Fig. 25

Pipe widthwise and lengthwise sections for D/t = 50

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Fig. 26

The velocity–pressure responses obtained for different diameter to thickness ratios

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