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Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

Closed Analytical Expressions for Stress Distributions in Two-Layer Cylinders and Their Application to Offshore Lined and Clad Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Knut Vedeld, Håvar A. Sollund, Jostein Hellesland

Mechanics Division,
Department of Mathematics,
University of Oslo,
Oslo 0316, Norway

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 8, 2013; final manuscript received December 5, 2014; published online February 20, 2015. Assoc. Editor: John Halkyard.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 137(2), 021702 (Apr 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: OMAE-13-1068; doi: 10.1115/1.4029357 History: Received July 08, 2013; Revised December 05, 2014; Online February 20, 2015

Closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the displacement field and corresponding stress state in two-layer cylinders subjected to pressure and thermal loading. Solutions are developed both for cylinders that are fully restrained axially (plane strain) and for cylinders that are axially loaded and spring-mounted. In the latter case, it is assumed that the combined two-layer cross section remains plane after deformation (generalized plane strain). The analytical solutions are verified by means of detailed three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses, and they are easily implemented in, and suitable for, engineering applications. The chosen axial boundary conditions are demonstrated to be particularly relevant for pipeline and piping applications. By applying the exact solutions derived in the present study to typical offshore lined or clad pipelines, it is demonstrated that thermal expansion of the liner or clad layer may cause higher tensile hoop stresses in the pipe steel wall than accounted for in current engineering practice. It is shown that repeated cycles of start-up and shut-down phases for lined or clad pipelines cause significant plastic stress cycles in liners or claddings, which may pose a risk to the integrity of such pipelines.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cylindrical coordinate system and stress nomenclature

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Fig. 2

Cross section of a two-layer cylinder with internal and external pressure

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Fig. 3

Boundary conditions for: (a) the axially fixed condition and (b) the axially free condition. Arrow heads indicate translational and double arrow heads rotational constraints.

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Fig. 4

(a) Piping system configuration. (b) Submarine pipeline resting on the seabed. (c) Model of a pipe segment applicable to both scenario (a) and (b).

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Fig. 5

Radial stresses in liner (0.6915 m  <  r  <  0.7215 m) and backing steel (0.7215 m  <  r  <  0.8415 m) for analytical (“An”) solutions and FE solutions, for fixed (“Fix”) and free (“Free”) axial boundary conditions

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Fig. 6

Hoop stresses in liner (0.6915 m  <  r  <  0.7215 m) and backing steel (0.7215 m  <  r  <  0.8415 m) for analytical (An) solutions and FE solutions, for fixed (Fix) and free (Free) axial boundary conditions

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