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Research Papers: Materials Technology

Metallurgical Design and Performance of High-Frequency Electric Resistance Welded Linepipe With High-Quality Weld Seam Suitable for Extra-Low-Temperature Services

[+] Author and Article Information
Shunsuke Toyoda

Steel Research Laboratory,
JFE Steel Corporation,
1-1, Minamiwatarida-cho,
Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855, Japan
e-mail: s-toyoda@jfe-steel.co.jp

Sota Goto

Steel Research Laboratory,
JFE Steel Corporation,
1, Kawasaki-cho 1-chome,
Handa, Aichi 475-8611, Japan
e-mail: s-goto@jfe-steel.co.jp

Takatoshi Okabe

Steel Research Laboratory,
JFE Steel Corporation,
1, Kawasaki-cho 1-chome,
Handa, Aichi 475-8611, Japan
e-mail: ta-okabe@jfe-steel.co.jp

Hideto Kimura

Steel Research Laboratory,
JFE Steel Corporation,
1, Kawasaki-cho 1-chome, Handa,
Aichi 475-8611, Japan
JFE Techno-Research Corporation,
1-1, Minamiwatarida-cho,
Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855, Japan
e-mail: h-kimura@jfe-tec.co.jp

Satoshi Igi

Steel Research Laboratory,
JFE Steel Corporation,
1 Kawasaki-cho,
Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-0835, Japan
e-mail: s-igi@jfe-steel.co.jp

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 17, 2013; final manuscript received January 20, 2015; published online March 10, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Xin Sun.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 137(3), 031401 (Jun 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: OMAE-13-1007; doi: 10.1115/1.4029762 History: Received January 17, 2013; Revised January 20, 2015; Online March 10, 2015

To clarify the effect of inclusions on the Charpy impact properties, the 2 mm V-notched Charpy properties of X60–X80-grades steel were numerically simulated using the finite element method code abaqus. The yield strength and the tensile strength of the steel were 562 MPa and 644 MPa, respectively. The striker's velocity and the temperature dependency of the stress–strain curve were taken into account. To estimate the effect of nonmetallic inclusions, a 200 μm long virtual inclusion with a 1 μm edge radius was situated at the maximum point of the stress triaxiality. Four types of microcrack initiation were determined: (a) ductile void generation in the matrix, (b) cleavage crack generation in the matrix, (c) void generation by inclusion fracture, and (d) void generation by matrix–inclusion interface debonding. Without inclusions, a ductile microvoid was generated when the striker stroke was 3.3 mm, independent of the temperature. With inclusions, an inclusion fracture occurred when the striker stroke was 0.6 mm at room temperature. The striker stroke decreased as the temperature decreased. Based on the above numerical estimation results, high-frequency electric resistance welded (HFW) linepipe with high-quality weld seam MightySeam® has been developed. Controlling the morphology and distribution of oxides generated during the welding process by means of temperature and deformation distribution control is the key factor for improving the low-temperature toughness. The Charpy transition temperature of the developed HFW pipe was much lower than −45 °C. Based on the low-temperature hydrostatic burst test with a notched weld seam at −20 °C, the MightySeam® weld provides a fracture performance that is the same as UOE double submerged arc welded pipe. The pipe has been used in actual, highly demanding, and severe environments.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Finite element mesh

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Fig. 2

Relationship between the stress ratio, σt °C/σ25 °C, and the temperature replotted from Refs. [10] and [12]

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Fig. 3

Distribution of stress triaxiality

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Fig. 4

Crack initiation stroke

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Fig. 5

Distribution of maximum principal stress (stroke = 4 mm; with inclusion; at −45 °C)

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Fig. 6

Distribution of σyy in the inclusion (stroke = 0.34 mm; at −45 °C)

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Fig. 7

Flow chart of the crack propagation analysis

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Fig. 8

Load–stroke curves

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Fig. 9

Deformed state and εp distribution (without inclusion; at 25 °C)

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Fig. 10

εp distribution near the notch (without inclusion; at 25 °C)

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Fig. 11

Deformed state and εp distribution (with inclusion; at 25 °C)

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Fig. 12

εp distribution near the notch (with inclusion; at 25 °C)

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Fig. 13

Deleted element number and stroke (without inclusion)

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Fig. 14

Deleted element number and stroke (with inclusion)

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Fig. 15

Relationship between the stroke and the crack length

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Fig. 16

Relationship between stroke and stress triaxiality with inclusion at −196 °C

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Fig. 17

Load–stroke curves with and without inclusion at −196 °C

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Fig. 18

Relationship between Charpy absorbed energy and temperature

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Fig. 19

Optical microstructure of the weld seam and base metal of X80-grade HFW steel pipe [17]

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Fig. 20

Charpy absorbed energy of the X60- and X65-grade HFW pipe weld seam

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Fig. 21

Schematic illustration of the low-temperature hydrostatic burst test configuration with a notched weld seam

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Fig. 22

Fracture appearance of the tested pipe in the weld with a notch

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Fig. 23

Deformation strain of the pipe body

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Fig. 24

Comparison of the fracture condition with the Battelle prediction formula

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