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Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

A Surface Ice Module for Wind Turbine Dynamic Response Simulation Using FAST

[+] Author and Article Information
Bingbin Yu

Department of Naval Architecture and
Marine Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: ybingbin@umich.edu

Dale G. Karr

Department of Naval Architecture and
Marine Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: dgkarr@umich.edu

Huimin Song

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Huimin.Song@nrel.gov

Senu Sirnivas

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Senu.Sirnivas@nrel.gov

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 20, 2013; final manuscript received September 13, 2015; published online June 3, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 138(5), 051501 (Jun 03, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: OMAE-13-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4033001 History: Received September 20, 2013; Revised September 13, 2015

Developing offshore wind energy has become more and more serious worldwide in recent years. Many of the promising offshore wind farm locations are in cold regions that may have ice cover during wintertime. The challenge of possible ice loads on offshore wind turbines raises the demand of modeling capacity of dynamic wind turbine response under the joint action of ice, wind, wave, and current. The simulation software FAST is an open source computer-aided engineering (CAE) package maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In this paper, a new module of FAST for assessing the dynamic response of offshore wind turbines subjected to ice forcing is presented. In the ice module, several models are presented which involve both prescribed forcing and coupled response. For conditions in which the ice forcing is essentially decoupled from the structural response, ice forces are established from existing models for brittle and ductile ice failure. For conditions in which the ice failure and the structural response are coupled, such as lock-in conditions, a rate-dependent ice model is described, which is developed in conjunction with a new modularization framework for FAST. In this paper, analytical ice mechanics models are presented that incorporate ice floe forcing, deformation, and failure. For lower speeds, forces slowly build until the ice strength is reached and ice fails resulting in a quasi-static condition. For intermediate speeds, the ice failure can be coupled with the structural response and resulting in coinciding periods of the ice failure and the structural response. A third regime occurs at high speeds of encounter in which brittle fracturing of the ice feature occurs in a random pattern, which results in a random vibration excitation of the structure. An example wind turbine response is simulated under ice loading of each of the presented models. This module adds to FAST the capabilities for analyzing the response of wind turbines subjected to forces resulting from ice impact on the turbine support structure. The conditions considered in this module are specifically addressed in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 19906:2010 for arctic offshore structures design consideration. Special consideration of lock-in vibrations is required due to the detrimental effects of such response with regard to fatigue and foundation/soil response. The use of FAST for transient, time domain simulation with the new ice module is well suited for such analyses.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Ice , Stress , Wind turbines
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Example wind turbine in contact with wind and ice

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Fig. 2

Wind turbine tower tip displacement under no ice load

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Fig. 3

Wind turbine tower base moment under no ice load

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of creep flow field around an indenter [18]

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Fig. 5

Time history of ice loading for ice model 1.1 creep

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Fig. 6

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 1.1 creep

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Fig. 7

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 1.1 creep

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Fig. 8

Geometry for analysis of elastic buckling, Ref. [18]

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Fig. 9

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 1.2 elastic buckling

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Fig. 10

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 1.2 elastic buckling

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Fig. 11

Ice structure interaction model [24]

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Fig. 12

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 2 dynamic ice loading

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Fig. 13

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 2 dynamic ice loading

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Fig. 14

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 3.1 static random ice loading

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Fig. 15

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 3.1 static random ice loading

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Fig. 16

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 3.2 dynamic random ice loading

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Fig. 17

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 3.2 dynamic random ice loading

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Fig. 18

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 3.2 dynamic random ice loading

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Fig. 19

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower base moment for ice model 3.3 creep with random ice properties

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Fig. 20

Time history of FAST simulated wind turbine tower top displacement for ice model 3.3 creep with random ice properties

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