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Research Papers: Materials Technology

Optimal Arc Welding Process Parameter Combination Design and Metallographic Examination for SDSS Butt Welds

[+] Author and Article Information
R. M. Chandima Ratnayake

Department of Mechanical and
Structural Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: chandima.ratnayake@uis.no

Daniel Dyakov

Department of Mechanical and
Structural Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger 4036, Norway
e-mail: hzzart@msn.com

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 17, 2016; final manuscript received December 10, 2016; published online April 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Marcelo R. Martins.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 139(3), 031402 (Apr 11, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-16-1006; doi: 10.1115/1.4035769 History: Received January 17, 2016; Revised December 10, 2016

Although novel techniques and high performance material open the way for generation of high-performance welded joints, the welding operations are inherently quite complex and expensive. This has been the case, especially for super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) welding. If inappropriate parameter combinations are selected, then the welding process degrades the strength and corrosion resistance because of an unbalanced ferrite/austenite content in an SDSS welded joint. Therefore, it is vital to determine the optimal combination of parameters such as welding process, rate of shielding gas, heat input, and weld geometry. In addition, the optimal combination of parameter levels plays an important role in maintaining the microstructural and mechanical properties in the weld's metal region. This paper illustrates an expert knowledge based methodology for designing the optimal parameter combination, using an engineering robust design approach (ERDA) and related experimentation results. The experiments were performed to investigate the effect of welding factors (i.e., gap geometry, different welding techniques, material transfer and welding processes) on the material properties in the weld and heat affected zone (HAZ). The optimal parameter combination, results of the verification experiment, and the metallographic examination results of selected regions of the butt welded joints are presented.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Welding parameters, variables, and gas system [27]

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Fig. 2

A framework for designing parameters

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Fig. 4

SDSS for making welded specimen

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Fig. 5

Arc welded specimen for nine experiments

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Fig. 6

Specimen preparation for testing: (a) Rusch metal cutting band-saw and (b) test specimen

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Fig. 7

Tensile testing specimen preparation [dimension: 10 × 10 × 200 (mm)]: (a) milling and (b) test specimen

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Fig. 8

Specimen preparation for metallographic examination: (a) polishing and (b) polished and etched specimen

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Fig. 10

Tensile tested specimen

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Fig. 11

Metallographic examination results

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Fig. 12

Plots of factor effects (factor levels at the best tensile strength are LA1-LB3-LC1-LD1)

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Fig. 13

Strain versus stress curve for the verification experiment

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Fig. 14

Tensile tested specimen for the verification experiment

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Fig. 15

Vickers hardness test results

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Fig. 16

Areas selected for metallographic examination

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Fig. 17

Metallographic examination in area A: from left to right experiments 8, 6, and 9

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Fig. 18

Metallographic examination in area A: from left to right experiments 4, 1, and 5

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Fig. 19

Metallographic examination in area B: from left to right experiments 8, 6, and 9

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Fig. 20

Metallographic examination in area B: from left to right experiments 4, 1, and 5

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