Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

A New Holistic Approach for Subsea Pipeline Upheaval Buckling Design

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Liu

Aker Solutions,
London W4 5HR, UK
e-mail: matt.liu@akersolutions.com

C. Cross

Aker Solutions,
London W4 5HR, UK
e-mail: colin.cross@akersolutions.com

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 19, 2016; final manuscript received March 18, 2017; published online May 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 139(5), 051702 (May 25, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: OMAE-16-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4036377 History: Received September 19, 2016; Revised March 18, 2017

For a trenched and buried pipeline, the propensity to upheaval buckling (UHB) is a major design concern. Predictive UHB design is typically required at the outset to determine both trenching and backfilling requirements. Additional rockdump schedule can be established by analyzing post pipelay out of straightness (OOS) survey data incorporating appropriate safety factors based on a structural reliability analysis (SRA). The normal approach is to examine the as-laid pipeline imperfection survey statistics and data accuracy. The structural reliability analysis and load factor calculation are typically performed a priori based on the assumed initial imperfections using the universal design curve methodology. A new pseudo-energy method for UHB and OOS is proposed and discussed in this paper based on the variational principle and modal analysis. The approach takes into account the effects of varying effective axial force, trench imperfections, and vertical uplift resistance, by combining both axial friction and lateral resistance methods into a unified model. A new concept, effective uplift resistance and associated load, is also introduced to deal with nonuniform backfill cover. Adjacent imperfections and backfill profiles are considered in detail. A finite element (FE) model is developed to consist of three-noded quadratic pipe elements using abaqus Ver 6.12, and iterations of FE analyses are performed to demonstrate the tangible benefits of the approach specifically for UHB OOS design in relation to target trenching and backfilling, leading to improved reliability and potential cost saving in UHB OOS design and rockdump installation.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Palmer, A. C. , Ellinas, C. P. , Richards, D. M. , and Guijt, J. , 1990, “ Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval Buckling,” 22nd Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 7–10, Vol. 2, SPE Paper No. OTC6335.
Croll, J. G. A. , 1998, “ A Simplified Analysis of Imperfect Thermally Buckled Subsea Pipelines,” Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng., 8(4), pp. 283–291.
Timoshenko, S. , 1961, Theory of Elastic Stability, McGraw-Hill, London, Chap. 2.
Budiansky, B. , and Hutchinson, J. W. , 1966, “ A Survey of Some Buckling Problems,” AIAA J., 4(9), pp. 1505–1510. [CrossRef]
Palmer, A. C. , and Baldry, J. A. S. , 1974, “ Lateral Buckling of Axially-Constrained Pipelines,” J. Pet. Technol., 26(11), pp. 1283–1284. [CrossRef]
Taylor, N. , and Gan, A. B. , 1986, “ Submarine Pipeline Buckling-Imperfection Studies,” J. Thin Walled Struct., 4(4), pp. 295–323. [CrossRef]
Ju, G. T. , and Kyriakides, S. , 1988, “ Thermal Buckling of Offshore Pipelines,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 110(4), pp. 355–364. [CrossRef]
Pedersen, P. T. , and Jensen, J. J. , 1988, “ Upheaval Creep of Buried Heated Pipelines With Initial Imperfections,” Mar. Struct., 1(1), pp. 11–22. [CrossRef]
Guijt, J. , 1990, “ Upheaval Buckling of Offshore Pipeline: Overview and Introduction,” 22nd Annual Offshore Technology Conference (OTC), Houston, TX, May 7–10, Vol. 2, SPE Paper No. OTC-6487-MS.
Nielsen, N. J. R. , Lyngberg, B. , and Pedersen, P. T. , 1990, “ Upheaval Buckling Failures of Insulated Buried Pipelines: A Case Story,” 22nd Annual Offshore Technology Conference (OTC), Houston, TX, May 7–10, Vol. 2, SPE Paper No. OTC-6488-MS.
Maltby, T. C. , and Calladine, C. R. , 1995, “ An Investigation Into Upheaval Buckling of Buried Pipelines—II: Theory and Analysis of Experimental Observations,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 37(9), pp. 943–963. [CrossRef]
Ballet, J. P. , and Hobbs, R. E. , 1992, “ Asymmetric Effects of Prop Imperfections on the Upheaval Buckling of Pipelines,” J. Thin Walled Struct., 13(5), pp. 355–373. [CrossRef]
Sparks, C. P. , 1984, “ The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight on Pipe and Riser Deformations and Stresses,” Trans. ASME, 106(1), pp. 46–54.
Fyrileiv, O. , and Collberg, L. , 2005, “ Influence of Pressure in Pipeline Design: Effective Axial Force,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2005-67502.
Pasqualino, I. P. , Alves, J. L. D. , and Battista, R. C. , 2001, “ Failure Simulation of a Buried Pipeline Under Thermal Loading,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2001-4124.
Taylor, N. , and Tran, V. , 1993, “ Prop-Imperfection Subsea Pipeline Buckling,” Mar. Struct., 6(4), pp. 325–358. [CrossRef]
Taylor, N. , and Tran, V. , 1996, “ Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Subsea Pipeline Buckling,” Mar. Struct., 9(2), pp. 211–257. [CrossRef]
Hunt, G. W. , and Blackmore, A. , 1997, “ Homoclinic and Heteroclinic Solutions of Upheaval Buckling,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 355(4), pp. 2185–2195.
DNV, 2007, “ Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines,” Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-F110.
ISO, 2006, “ Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries—Pipeline Transportation Systems—Reliability Based Limit State Methods,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 16708.
Mork, K. J. , Bjornsen, T. , Venas, A. , and Thorkildsen, F. , 1997, “ Reliability Based Calibration Study for Upheaval Buckling of Pipelines,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 119(4), pp. 203–208. [CrossRef]
Hobbs, R. E. , 1981, “ Pipeline Buckling Caused by Axial Loads,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 1(2), pp. 2–10. [CrossRef]
Hobbs, R. E. , 1984, “ In-Service Buckling of Heated Pipelines,” ASCE J. Transp. Eng., 110(2), pp. 175–189. [CrossRef]
Bruton, D. , and Carr, M. , 2010, “ JIP SAFEBUCK: Bucking the Trend,” Offshore Engineer, Houston, TX, pp. 5–8.
Koochekali, A. , Gatmiri, B. , and Koochekali, A. , 2013, “ Pipeline Upheaval Buckling in Clayey Backfill Using Numerical Analysis,” Int. J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 3(2), pp. 43–50.
Liu, R. , Xiong, H. , Wu, X. , and Yan, S. , 2014, “ Numerical Studies on Global Buckling of Subsea Pipelines,” Ocean Eng., 78(1), pp. 62–72. [CrossRef]
SHELL, 2006, “ Upheaval Buckling of Pipelines,” Design and Engineering Practice, Royal Dutch Shell, Hague, The Netherlands, Standard No. DEP


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of rockdumping location

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Concrete mattress and gabion bag

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Discrete download versus imperfection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

FEA buckle lift-off at crown of imperfection—imperfection versus uplift resistance



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In