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Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

Velocity Effect on the Bending Failure of Ice Sheets Against Wide Sloping Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Yihe Wang

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
The National University of Singapore,
Block E1A, #07-03,
No. 1 Engineering Drive 2,
117576, Singapore
e-mail: ceewyh@nus.edu.sg

Leong Hien Poh

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
The National University of Singapore,
Block E1A, #07-03,
No. 1 Engineering Drive 2,
117576, Singapore
e-mail: leonghien@nus.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 16, 2017; final manuscript received April 8, 2017; published online May 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 139(6), 061501 (May 25, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4036478 History: Received January 16, 2017; Revised April 08, 2017

Sloping structures are widely used in ice-infested waters because of their ability to reduce ice loading by inducing a bending failure in ice sheets. From model test data, a significant velocity effect on the breaking load of ice sheets has been reported. In this paper, the ice–fluid interaction process is investigated by adopting the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory for the ice sheet and the potential theory for the underlying fluid domain. Accounting for the inertia effect of the ice sheet and the hydrodynamics of sea water beneath the ice sheet, the results demonstrate a velocity effect on the ice breaking loads in-plane deformation, which compare well with the available model test data. Moreover, our model formulation and implementation is such that the solutions for different ice velocities can be obtained rapidly from the reference solution, which facilitates the development of a real-time simulator. It is also shown that the velocity effect depends on the ice compressive strength and the angle of sloping structure.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Stress , Ice , Failure , Fluids
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Ice sheet approaching a sloping structure

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Fig. 2

Component forces acting on the contact surface

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Fig. 3

Possible fluid domains beneath the ice sheet with a (a) wide floating sloping structure, (b) wide fixed sloping structure, and (c) irregular seabed profile

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Fig. 5

Forces acting on the contacting interface

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Fig. 6

(a) The deformed ice sheet represented by the dotted line if local crushing is ignored. The actual deformed profile is represented by the solid line, with ξ denoting the vertical crushed distance; (b) time histories of vertical velocities at contact point: vvert if local crushing is neglected, and vc the (smoothed) actual contact point vertical velocity incorporating local crushing effect.

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Fig. 7

Schematics of the model test

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Fig. 8

Comparison between the predicted results and model test data for (a) breaking load and (b) breaking length

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Fig. 9

Load velocity factor for different slope angles. The symbols are obtained from the rapid analysis strategy. Dotted line obtained numerically with slope angle of 45 deg. Velocity factor defined as breaking load normalized by the respective static solution.

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Fig. 10

Breaking length velocity factor against ice velocity (α = 45 deg). Velocity factor defined as breaking length normalized by the static solution.

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Fig. 11

Load velocity factor for different ice compressive strengths. The symbols are obtained from the rapid analysis strategy. Dotted line obtained numerically for σc = 3 MPa. Velocity factor defined as breaking load normalized by the respective static solution.

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Fig. 12

Introduction of reference point

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Fig. 13

Ice sheet profile at different time steps until failure. Symbols denote numerical solutions, and solid lines determined from the rapid analysis strategy.

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Fig. 14

Velocity magnitude in the fluid domain at different time steps until failure. Only part of the fluid domain (0 m ≤ x ≤ 50 m and −25 m ≤ z ≤ 0 m) is shown. Row (a) is obtained from the rapid analysis strategy. Row (b) is obtained numerically.

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Fig. 15

Evolution of hydrodynamic pressure along the ice sheet obtained numerically

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Fig. 16

Sketch for the validation case

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Fig. 17

Comparison between results from the numerical and analytical solution

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