Research Papers: Offshore Technology

The Influence of the Ship's Speed and Distance to an Arbitrarily Shaped Bank on Bank Effects

[+] Author and Article Information
Evert Lataire

Tech Lane Ghent Science Park—Campus A 904,
Ghent University,
Ghent 9052, Belgium
e-mail: Evert.Lataire@UGent.be

Marc Vantorre

Tech Lane Ghent Science Park—Campus A 904,
Ghent University,
Ghent 9052, Belgium
e-mail: Marc.Vantorre@UGent.be

Guillaume Delefortrie

Flanders Hydraulics Research,
Berchemlei 115,
Antwerp 2140, Belgium
e-mail: Guillaume.Delefortrie@mow.vlaanderen.be

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 29, 2015; final manuscript received December 15, 2017; published online February 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Carlos Guedes Soares.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(2), 021304 (Feb 07, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: OMAE-15-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4038804 History: Received June 29, 2015; Revised December 15, 2017

In shallow and restricted waterways, the water displaced by a sailing ship is squeezed under and along its hull. These confinements result in increased velocities of the return flow along the hull and the induced pressure distribution on the hull causes a combination of forces and moments on the vessel. If generated because of asymmetric flow due to the presence of a bank, this combination of forces and moment is known as bank effects. A comprehensive experimental research program on bank effects has been carried out in the towing tank for maneuvers in shallow water (cooperation Flanders Hydraulics Research—Ghent University) at Flanders Hydraulics Research (FHR) in Antwerp, Belgium. The obtained data consist of more than 14,000 unique model test conditions. The relative position and distance between a ship and an arbitrarily shaped bank is ambiguous. Therefore, a definition for a dimensionless distance to the bank is introduced. In this way, the properties of a random cross section are taken into account without exaggerating the bathymetry at a distance far away from the ship or without underestimating the bank shape at close proximity to the ship. Also, a dimensionless velocity is introduced to take the influence of the water depth, forward speed, and blockage into account. The proposed mathematical model for bank effects, often described as a sway force and yaw moment, is instead decomposed in two sway forces at each perpendicular.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Propellers , Ships , Vessels , Water
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lewis, E. V. , 1989, Principles of Naval Architecture (Motions in Waves and Controllability), Vol. III, Jersey City, NJ.
Constantine, T. , 1960, “ On the Movement of Ships in Restricted Waterways,” J. Fluid Mech., pp. 247–256.
Schijf, J. B. , 1949, “ Protection of Embankments and Bed in Inland and Maritime Waters, and in Overflow or Weirs,” XVII International Navigation Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 61–78. https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3Ae0a52ec1-b6d3-475d-b50c-80e6c6e2fe0e
Dand, I. W. , 1977, “ The Physical Causes of Interaction and Its Effects,” Nautical Institute Conference on Ship Handling, Plymouth, UK, Nov. 24–25, pp. 34–73.
Norrbin, N. H. , 1975, “ Manoeuvring in Confined Waters: Interaction Phenomena Due to Side Banks or Other Ships,” 14th International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC), Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sept., pp. 450–486.
Schoenherr, K. E. , 1960, “ Data for Estimating Bank Suction Effects in Restricted Water and on Merchant Ship Hulls,” First Symposium on Ship Maneuverability, Bethesda, MD, May 24–25, pp. 199–210.
Lataire, E. , Vantorre, M. , and Eloot, K. , 2009, “ Systematic Model Tests on Ship-Bank Interaction Effects,” International Conference on Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water: Bank Effects, Antwerp, Belgium, May, pp. 9–22. https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/663477
Delefortrie, G. , Geerts, S. , and Vantorre, M. , 2016, “ Towing Tank for Manoeuvres in Shallow Water,” International Conference on Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water (MASHCON 4), Hamburg, Germany, May 23–25, pp. 226–235. https://izw.baw.de/e-medien/4th-mashcon/PDF/4%20Experimental%20Measurements/4_01.pdf
Van Zwijnsvoorde, T. , Tello Ruiz, M. , Delefortrie, G. , and Lataire, E. , 2019, “ Sailing in Shallow Water Waves With the DTC Container Carrier: Open Model Test Data for Validation Purposes,” Fifth International Conference on Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water (MASHCON), Ostend, Belgium, May 20–22, pp. 1–20. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317003865_SAILING_IN_SHALLOW_WATER_WAVES_WITH_THE_DTC_CONTAINER_CARRIER_OPEN_MODEL_TEST_DATA_FOR_VALIDATION_PURPOSES
Lataire, E. , 2014, “ Experimentele bepaling en wiskundige modellering van oevereffecten op schepen, Experiment Based Mathematical Modelling of Ship-Bank Interaction,” Ph.D. dissertation, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Kim, W. J. , Van, S. H. , and Kim, D. H. , 2001, “ Measurement of Flows around Modern Commercial Ship Models,” Exp. Fluids, 31(5), pp. 567–578. [CrossRef]
Zou, L. , and Larsson, L. , 2013, “ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Prediction of Bank Effects Including Verification and Validation,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., 18(3), pp. 310–323. [CrossRef]
Van Hoydonck, W. , Am, W. , Toxopeus, S. , Eloot, K. , Bhawsinka, K. , Queutey, P. , and Visonneau, M. , 2015, “ Bank Effects for KVLCC2,” World Maritime Technology Conference, Providence, RI, Nov. 3–7, pp. 1–18. http://www.nattekunstwerkenvandetoekomst.nl/upload/documents/tinymce/Bank-effects.pdf
Norrbin, N. H. , 1974, “ Bank Effects on a Ship Moving Through a Short Dredged Channel,” Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, 10th, Proceedings, Pap and Discuss, Cambridge, MA, June 24–28, pp. 71–78. https://trid.trb.org/view/66752
White, F. M. , 2003, Fluid Mechanics, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Lataire, E. , Delefortrie, G. , and Vantorre, M. , 2016, “ Impact of Banks on Ship Squat,” International Conference on Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water (MASHCON 4), Hamburg, Germany, May 23–25, pp. 115–121.
Lataire, E. , and Vantorre, M. , 2008, “ Ship-Bank Interaction Induced by Irregular Bank Geometries,” 27th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Seoul, South Korea, Oct. 5–10, pp. 5–10. https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiO0pW30azYAhVHQyYKHTqbCsoQFggpMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vliz.be%2Fimisdocs%2Fpublications%2F140585.pdf&usg=AOvVaw22Wog46rDj2iB8qobzc3AX
Venables, W. , Smith, D. , and Team, R. D. C. , 2002, “ An Introduction to R,” R Core Team, Adelaide, Australia, accessed May 23, 2014, http://www.math.vu.nl/sto/onderwijs/statlearn/R-Binder.pdf
Tuck, E. O. , 1966, “ Shallow-Water Flows Past Slender Bodies,” J. Fluid Mech., 26(1), pp. 81–95. [CrossRef]
Briggs, M. , Vantorre, M. , Uliczka, K. , and Debaillon, P. , 2009, “ Prediction of Squat for Underkeel Clearance,” Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Y. C. , Kim , ed., World Scientific, Los Angeles, CA, pp. 723–774.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A schematic cross section of a vessel in a rectangular fairway at rest (above) and with forward speed (below)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Order of magnitude of the boundary layer thickness at full scale and model scale according to Ref. [15] and Prandtl and von Karman's momentum law

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Water surface deformation (left) and streamlines (right) of a ship (T0Z) sailing close to a vertical bank

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The decomposition of the horizontal bank effect forces

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Lateral force at the fore and aft perpendicular for a wide range of water depths (here expressed as the ratio (T/h−T)) for ship model A01, in the FHR towing tank at lateral position y = 2.5 m, according to 10 knots full scale, fixed propeller shaft 0 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Rise and run of a sloped bank

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Semi submerged bank properties Wmax, Wh and zh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The number of model tests for each h/T ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The number of model tests for each Frh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The number of model tests for each Reynolds number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Lateral force at the fore and aft perpendicular at (T/h−T)=2.5 for ship model A01, in the 7 m wide FHR towing tank at lateral position y = 2.50 m, according to 10 knots full scale, fixed propeller shaft 0 rpm (up to time-step 86s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

A ship in an arbitrarily shaped cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

A ship in a cross section and a graphical representation of the weight distribution in the same cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Graphical interpretation (top down) of χship, χs (the integrated and weighted area at starboard) and χp

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

d2b−1 versus YA for T0Z, 10kts, 554 rpm, h=1.50T (the horizontal axis is intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality. The origin (0,0) lies on the intersection of both axes).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The Tuck number Tu(V) in the sub (Frh<1) and super critical (Frh>1) speed region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The lateral force at the forward perpendicular without an active propeller action (0 rpm) plotted for the same test with active propeller action (according to self-propulsion in open water). Abscissa and ordinate are intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

YA plotted to TuVeq for all the model tests with A01 in cross section QY_0_7.00_0 at a lateral position y = 2.500 m. Ordinate is intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Relative water depth dependent function to change sign (repulsion–attraction) for the lateral force YF




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In