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Research Papers: Offshore Technology

The Influence of the Ship's Speed and Distance to an Arbitrarily Shaped Bank on Bank Effects

[+] Author and Article Information
Evert Lataire

Tech Lane Ghent Science Park—Campus A 904,
Ghent University,
Ghent 9052, Belgium
e-mail: Evert.Lataire@UGent.be

Marc Vantorre

Tech Lane Ghent Science Park—Campus A 904,
Ghent University,
Ghent 9052, Belgium
e-mail: Marc.Vantorre@UGent.be

Guillaume Delefortrie

Mem. ASME
Flanders Hydraulics Research,
Berchemlei 115,
Antwerp 2140, Belgium
e-mail: Guillaume.Delefortrie@mow.vlaanderen.be

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 29, 2015; final manuscript received December 15, 2017; published online February 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Carlos Guedes Soares.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(2), 021304 (Feb 07, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: OMAE-15-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4038804 History: Received June 29, 2015; Revised December 15, 2017

In shallow and restricted waterways, the water displaced by a sailing ship is squeezed under and along its hull. These confinements result in increased velocities of the return flow along the hull and the induced pressure distribution on the hull causes a combination of forces and moments on the vessel. If generated because of asymmetric flow due to the presence of a bank, this combination of forces and moment is known as bank effects. A comprehensive experimental research program on bank effects has been carried out in the towing tank for maneuvers in shallow water (cooperation Flanders Hydraulics Research—Ghent University) at Flanders Hydraulics Research (FHR) in Antwerp, Belgium. The obtained data consist of more than 14,000 unique model test conditions. The relative position and distance between a ship and an arbitrarily shaped bank is ambiguous. Therefore, a definition for a dimensionless distance to the bank is introduced. In this way, the properties of a random cross section are taken into account without exaggerating the bathymetry at a distance far away from the ship or without underestimating the bank shape at close proximity to the ship. Also, a dimensionless velocity is introduced to take the influence of the water depth, forward speed, and blockage into account. The proposed mathematical model for bank effects, often described as a sway force and yaw moment, is instead decomposed in two sway forces at each perpendicular.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Propellers , Ships , Vessels , Water
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic cross section of a vessel in a rectangular fairway at rest (above) and with forward speed (below)

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Fig. 2

Order of magnitude of the boundary layer thickness at full scale and model scale according to Ref. [15] and Prandtl and von Karman's momentum law

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Fig. 3

Water surface deformation (left) and streamlines (right) of a ship (T0Z) sailing close to a vertical bank

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Fig. 4

The decomposition of the horizontal bank effect forces

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Fig. 5

Lateral force at the fore and aft perpendicular for a wide range of water depths (here expressed as the ratio (T/h−T)) for ship model A01, in the FHR towing tank at lateral position y = 2.5 m, according to 10 knots full scale, fixed propeller shaft 0 rpm

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Fig. 6

Rise and run of a sloped bank

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Fig. 7

Semi submerged bank properties Wmax, Wh and zh

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Fig. 8

The number of model tests for each h/T ratio

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Fig. 9

The number of model tests for each Frh

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Fig. 10

The number of model tests for each Reynolds number

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Fig. 11

Lateral force at the fore and aft perpendicular at (T/h−T)=2.5 for ship model A01, in the 7 m wide FHR towing tank at lateral position y = 2.50 m, according to 10 knots full scale, fixed propeller shaft 0 rpm (up to time-step 86s)

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Fig. 12

A ship in an arbitrarily shaped cross section

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Fig. 13

A ship in a cross section and a graphical representation of the weight distribution in the same cross section

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Fig. 14

Graphical interpretation (top down) of χship, χs (the integrated and weighted area at starboard) and χp

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Fig. 15

d2b−1 versus YA for T0Z, 10kts, 554 rpm, h=1.50T (the horizontal axis is intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality. The origin (0,0) lies on the intersection of both axes).

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Fig. 16

The Tuck number Tu(V) in the sub (Frh<1) and super critical (Frh>1) speed region

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Fig. 17

The lateral force at the forward perpendicular without an active propeller action (0 rpm) plotted for the same test with active propeller action (according to self-propulsion in open water). Abscissa and ordinate are intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality.

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Fig. 18

YA plotted to TuVeq for all the model tests with A01 in cross section QY_0_7.00_0 at a lateral position y = 2.500 m. Ordinate is intentionally left blank for reasons of confidentiality.

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Fig. 19

Relative water depth dependent function to change sign (repulsion–attraction) for the lateral force YF

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