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Research Papers: CFD and VIV

Finite Element and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modeling of Fluid–Structure Interaction Using a Unified Computational Methodology

[+] Author and Article Information
Ravi Challa

School of Civil and Construction Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331

Solomon C. Yim

Professor
Fellow ASME
School of Civil and Construction Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 22, 2015; final manuscript received January 5, 2018; published online June 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Robert Seah.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(6), 061801 (Jun 13, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: OMAE-15-1072; doi: 10.1115/1.4038939 History: Received July 22, 2015; Revised January 05, 2018

This study illustrates a comparison of two numerical methods under a unified computational platform for solving fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems. The first is an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE)-based fluid model coupled to a structural finite element (FE) method (ALE-FE/FE), and the second is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method coupled to the same structural FE code (SPH/FE). The predictive capabilities and computational efficiency of both the numerical methods are evaluated and validated against a canonical problem of a rapidly varying flow past an elastic gate for which experimental data are available. In both numerical solutions, the fluid flow is governed by the Navier–Stokes equation, and the elastic gate is modeled as a flexible structure. Numerical simulation results show that the ALE-FE/FE continuum approach not only captures the dynamic behavior properly but also predicts the water-free surface profiles and the elastic gate deformations accurately. On the other hand, the coupled purely Lagrangian approach of the SPH/FE under an identical computational platform is found to be less accurate and efficient in predicting the dynamics of the elastic gate motion and the water-free surface profiles.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of water tank and elastic gate: (a) lateral and (b) frontal view

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the contact algorithm used in FSI

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Fig. 3

Penalty based coupling mechanism for FSI

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Fig. 4

Flowchart showing the coupled domain decomposition for FSI

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Fig. 5

ALE-FE/FE computational domain (3D): (a) side view and (b) isometric view

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Fig. 6

SPH/FE computational domain (3D): (a) side view and (b) isometric view

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Fig. 7

Illustration from numerical simulations (at 0.04 s intervals from t = 0 s to t = 0.4 s): (a) ALE-FE/FE and (b) SPH/FE

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Fig. 8

Horizontal and vertical displacements of the free end of the gate: (a) ALE-FE/FE and (b) SPH/FE

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Fig. 9

Water level in the tank for ALE-FE/FE and SPH/FE simulations: (a) just behind the gate and (b) 5 cm from gate

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Fig. 10

Horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) displacement time histories of the free end of the elastic gate for different smoothing lengths (SPH/FE)

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Fig. 11

Stress distribution on the elastic gate: (a) ALE-FE/FE simulation, σyyatt=0.12 s:σyy=−414,000N/m2(back surface)toσyy=401,900 N/m2(top 70 % of the elastic gate)and(b)(SPH/FE) simulation,σxxatt=0.19s:σxx=−2458 N/m2(bottom10-30 % of the elastic gate)toσxx=7406 N/m2 (top 70 % of the elastic gate)

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Fig. 12

Horizontal and vertical displacement of the free end of the gate (ALE mesh size variations—“ds” represents the ALE-FE mesh size)

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Fig. 13

Horizontal and vertical displacement of the free end of the gate (SPH particle resolution)

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