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Research Papers: Materials Technology

Finite Element Investigation on the Tensile Armor Wire Response of Flexible Pipe for Axisymmetric Loading Conditions Using an Implicit Solver

[+] Author and Article Information
Alireza Ebrahimi

Faculty Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
240 Prince Philip Drive,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada

Shawn Kenny

Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Design,
Carleton University,
1112 Colonel By Drive,
Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada

Amgad Hussein

Faculty Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
240 Prince Philip Drive,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 11, 2015; final manuscript received January 19, 2018; published online March 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Lizhong Wang.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(4), 041402 (Mar 07, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-15-1067; doi: 10.1115/1.4039132 History: Received July 11, 2015; Revised January 19, 2018

Composite flexible pipe is used in the offshore oil and gas industry for the transport of hydrocarbons, jumpers connecting subsea infrastructure, and risers with surface platforms and facilities. Although the material fabrication costs are high, there are technical advantages with respect to installation and performance envelope (e.g., fatigue). Flexible pipe has a complex, composite section with each layer addressing a specific function (e.g., pressure containment, and axial load). Continuum finite element modeling (FEM) procedures are developed to examine the mechanical response of an unbonded flexible pipe subject to axisymmetric loading conditions. A parameter study examined the effects of: (1) pure torsion, (2) interlayer friction factor, (3) axial tension, and (4) external and internal pressure on the pipe mechanical response. The results demonstrated a coupled global-local mechanism with a bifurcation path for positive angles of twist relative to the tensile armor wire pitch angle. These results indicated that idealized analytical- and structural-based numerical models may be incomplete or may provide an accurate prediction of the pipe mechanical response. The importance of using an implicit solver to predict the bifurcation response and simulate contact mechanics between layers was highlighted.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cross section of the flexible pipe modeled in this study [1]

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Fig. 2

Mesh topology for the pipe segment and distribution within the cross section

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Fig. 3

Reference node for end boundary condition and direction of positive twist moment

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Fig. 4

Smooth contact pressure (CPRESS) around the nonlinear, birdcage zone [26]

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the contact mechanics for the same modeling conditions for (a) explicit scheme exhibiting excessive over-closure between surfaces and (b) implicit scheme resulting in more precise contact resolution

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Fig. 6

Flowchart of flexible pipe FE model

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Fig. 7

Twist moment versus twist angle per unit length

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Fig. 8

Twist moment versus local radial displacement in different layers

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Fig. 9

Radial contraction of the cross section and interior tensile armor wire layer due to clockwise torsional moment and under end-free–to-elongate BC (magnification factor ×1000)

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Fig. 10

Radial expansion and separation of external tensile armor wire layer due to the counterclockwise torsional moment and under end-free–to-elongate boundary condition (magnification factor ×1000)

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Fig. 11

Twist moment versus local tangential displacement in two tensile armor layers

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Fig. 12

Twist moment versus axial displacement (end free to elongate BC)

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Fig. 13

Twist moment versus normalized von Mises stress at the middle of tensile armor

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Fig. 14

Twist moment versus twist angle per unit length for different friction factors

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Fig. 15

Axial force versus axial deformation per unit length

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Fig. 16

Torsion versus twist per unit length

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Fig. 17

Radial contraction of the pipe under pure axial tension (magnification factor ×1000)

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Fig. 18

Radial expansion caused by pure axial compression (magnification factor ×1000)

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Fig. 19

Torsion versus twist per unit length under 10 MPa of internal pressure

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Fig. 20

Torsion versus twist per unit length under 5 MPa of external pressure

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