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Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

A Three-Dimensional Model for Ice Rubble Pile-Ice Sheet-Conical Structure Interaction at the Piers of Confederation Bridge, Canada

[+] Author and Article Information
Chee K. Wong

Schulich School of Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive, N.W.,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: wongck@ucalgary.ca

Thomas G. Brown

Schulich School of Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive, N.W.,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 18, 2017; final manuscript received January 5, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(5), 051501 (May 21, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1168; doi: 10.1115/1.4039261 History: Received September 18, 2017; Revised January 05, 2018

Offshore structures constructed in waters where ice cover is prevalent for several months a year are subjected to ice loading. Some of these structures are conical or sloped-faced in shape, where flexural failure becomes the dominant mode of failure for the ice sheet. The flexural failure mode reduces the magnitude of ice-structure interaction loads in comparison to other modes of failure. Various researchers have devised flexural failure models for ice-conical structure interactions. Each model shares the same principle of the ice sheet being modeled as a beam on an elastic foundation, but each model has different limitations in precisely simulating the interaction. Some models do not incorporate the ice rubble pile, while other models make oversimplified assumptions for three-dimensional behavior. The proposed three-dimensional (3D) model aims to reduce some of these limitations with the following features: (1) modeling the geometry of the ice rubble pile around the conical pier using the results of small-scale tests, (2) modeling the loads exerted by the ice rubble pile on the conical structure and ice sheet with a rigorous method of slices, (3) adding driving forces in keeping the rubble pile intact and in upward motion during the interaction, (4) accounting for eccentric offsetting moments at the ice-structure contacts, and (5) modeling the flexural behavior of the ice sheet subject to ice rubble loads using finite element method. The proposed model is used to analyze the interaction events recorded at the conical piers of the Confederation Bridge over a period of 11 years.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of (a) horizontal ice sheet movement as opposed to (b) radial ice sheet movement. There would be no ice sheet pieces accumulating on the cone structure in radial movement.

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Fig. 2

Ice rubble pile formation at the confederation bridge pier

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Fig. 3

Instrumented Pier 31, Confederation Bridge [15]

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Fig. 4

Ice rubble pile geometry of the middle section

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Fig. 5

Rubble model of test setup

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Fig. 6

Ice sheet divided into ten horizontal strip sections with section 1-1 being the middle section. Each sheet section analyzed also includes the rubble pile on top of the sheet.

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Fig. 7

(a) Ice rubble pile of event no. 1 with slices and (b) passive case with horizontal driving force, PD

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Fig. 8

Illustration of a rubble load, Wi, acting at a distance ai, this is the assumption presented for all strip sections around the cone

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Fig. 9

Finite element mesh for the ice sheet

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Fig. 10

(a) Ice rubble load patterns on ten strip sections of the ice sheet for event no. 1. Illustration of the top view of the sheet with weight, Wi, and distance, ai, components labeled and (b) ice rubble load patterns on ten strip sections of the ice sheet for event no. 1. General view.

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Fig. 11

Flexural stress at initial contact between ice sheet and cone with ice rubble loads (event no. 1)

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Fig. 12

Displacement s of the ice sheet up the conical slopewith horizontal and vertical components, sx and sz, respectively (sy component is zero). This displacement occurs along section 1-1.

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Fig. 13

Plan view illustrating the arc angle β for ice sheet-conical pier interaction

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Fig. 14

Uplift displacement of the ice sheet when s = 0.10 m for full contact

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Fig. 15

Illustration of breaking forces and offset moments

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Fig. 16

Flexural stress distribution of the sheet at flexural failure for event no. 1 (s = 0.125 m)

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Fig. 17

Comparison of measured and predicted loads for ten events from the confederation bridge

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Fig. 18

Comparison of model predicted loads and actual measured loads with total weight of the ice rubble pile for each interaction event

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