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Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

A Frictional Contact Element for Flexible Pipe Modeling With Finite Macroelements

[+] Author and Article Information
Rodrigo Provasi

Department of Structural and Geotechnical
Engineering,
University of São Paulo,
Avenida Professor Almeida Prado,
Trav. 2, No. 83,
São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil
e-mail: provasi@usp.br

Fernando Geremias Toni

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of São Paulo,
Avenida Professor Mello Moraes, No. 2231,
São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil
e-mail: fernando.toni@usp.br

Clóvis de Arruda Martins

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of São Paulo,
Avenida Professor Mello Moraes, No. 2231,
São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil
e-mail: cmartins@usp.br

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 28, 2017; final manuscript received March 20, 2018; published online May 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jonas W. Ringsberg.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(5), 051703 (May 02, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1232; doi: 10.1115/1.4039795 History: Received December 28, 2017; Revised March 20, 2018

The layers of unbounded flexible pipes have relative movement, enhancing its capabilities to handle curvatures and moment loads. In a simplified approach, those pipes can be described using bonded elements; but to really capture this behavior, a frictional contact is utterly needed. In general, dealing with contact problems in computational mechanics is complicated, since it involves the constant evaluation of its status and can lead to convergence problems or simulation failure, due to intrinsically problematic and inefficient contact models or due to contact models that are insufficient to capture the desired details. The macroelement formulation, which was created to deal with flexible pipes in a simplified way, needed a frictional contact element to enhance the quality of results and closeness to real behavior. The major drawback for developing such element is the different nature of the nodal displacements descriptions. The first approach possible is the simplest contact model: it involves only the nodes in each contacting elements. The gap information and distances are evaluated using exclusively the nodal information. This kind of model provides good results with minimum computational effort, especially when considering small displacements. This paper proposes such element: a node-to-node contact formulation for macroelements. It considers that the nodal displacements of both nodes are in cylindrical coordinates with one of them using Fourier series to describe the displacements. To show model effectiveness, a case study with a cylinder using Fourier series and multiple helical elements connected with the contact element is done and shows great results.

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References

Cook, R. D. , Malkus, D. S. , Plesha, M. E. , and Witt, R. J. , 2002, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, 4th ed., Wiley, New York, p. 719.
Wriggers, P. , 2002, Computational Contact Mechanics, Wiley, New York.
Wriggers, P. , Vu Van, T. , and Stein, E. , 1990, “ Finite Element Formulation of Large Deformation Impact-Contact Problems With Friction,” Comput. Struct., 37(3), pp. 319–331. [CrossRef]
Litewka, P. , and Wriggers, P. , 2002, “ Contact Between 3D Beams With Rectangular Cross-Sections,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 53(9), pp. 2019–2041. [CrossRef]
Zavarise, G. , and De Lorenzis, L. , 2009, “ The Node-to-Segment Algorithm for 2D Frictionless Contact Classical Formulation and Special Cases,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 198(41–44), pp. 3428–3451. [CrossRef]
Provasi, R. , and Martins, C. A. , 2010, “ A Finite Macro-Element for Cylindrical Layer Modeling,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2010-20379.
Provasi, R. , and Martins, C. A. , 2013, “ A Finite Macro-Element for Orthotropic Cylindrical Layer Modeling,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 135(3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Provasi, R. , and Martins, C. A. , 2014, “ A Three-Dimensional Curved Beam Element for Helical Components Modeling,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 136(4), p. 041601. [CrossRef]
Provasi, R. , and Martins, C. A. , 2013, “ A Rigid Connection Element for Macro-Elements With Different Node Displacement Natures,” 23rd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Anchorage, AK, June 30–July 5, Paper No. ISOPE-I-13-238.
Provasi, R. , and Martins, C. A. , 2013, “ A Contact Element for Macro-Elements With Different Node Displacement Natures,” 23rd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Anchorage, AK, June 30--July 5, Paper No. ISOPE-I-13-239.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Flexible pipe layers

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Fig. 2

Two bodies before contact

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Fig. 3

Cylinder mesh and associated parameters

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Fig. 4

Contact element placement (top view)

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Fig. 5

Compliance law for normal contact: (a) ideal behavior, (b) behavior using a compliance law, and (c) behavior using penalty method

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Fig. 6

Sticking and sliding difference. The first figure is initial configuration, while the second one is sticking and the third one sliding.

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Fig. 7

Tangential compliance law: (a) ideal behavior using Coulomb's law and (b) behavior using penalty method. ftan indicates the tangential force, while gaptan indicates the tangential gap.

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Fig. 8

ANSYS mesh for the cylinder plus one tendon case

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Fig. 9

Radial displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 10

Circumferential displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 11

Axial displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 12

Radial displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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Fig. 13

Circumferential displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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Fig. 14

Axial displacement versus axial coordinate for helix and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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Fig. 15

ANSYS mesh for the cylinder plus internal armor case

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Fig. 16

Radial displacement versus axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 17

Circumferential displacement versus axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 18

Axial displacement versus axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictionless case.

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Fig. 19

Radial displacement versus axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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Fig. 20

Circumferential displacement versus axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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Fig. 21

Axial displacement x axial coordinate for first helix in armor and cylinder under compression. Frictional case.

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