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Research Papers: CFD and VIV

Development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model to Simulate Three-Dimensional Gap Resonance Driven by Surface Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongchao Wang

Oceans Graduate School,
The University of Western Australia (M053),
35 Stirling Highway,
Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
e-mail: hongchao.wang@research.uwa.edu.au

Scott Draper

Oceans Graduate School,
School of Civil, Environmental and
Mining Engineering,
The University of Western Australia (M053),
35 Stirling Highway,
Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
e-mail: scott.draper@uwa.edu.au

Wenhua Zhao

Oceans Graduate School,
The University of Western Australia (M053),
35 Stirling Highway,
Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
e-mail: wenhua.zhao@uwa.edu.au

Hugh Wolgamot

Oceans Graduate School,
The University of Western Australia (M053),
35 Stirling Highway,
Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
e-mail: hugh.wolgamot@uwa.edu.au

Liang Cheng

Oceans Graduate School,
School of Civil, Environmental and
Mining Engineering,
The University of Western Australia (M053),
35 Stirling Highway,
Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
e-mail: liang.cheng@uwa.edu.au

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 29, 2018; final manuscript received May 6, 2018; published online June 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hans Bihs.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(6), 061803 (Jun 28, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: OMAE-18-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4040242 History: Received January 29, 2018; Revised May 06, 2018

This paper expounds the process of successfully establishing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to accurately reproduce experimental results of three-dimensional (3D) gap resonance between two fixed ship-shaped boxes. The ship-shaped boxes with round bilges were arranged in a side-by-side configuration to represent a floating liquefied natural gas offloading scenario and were subjected to NewWave-type transient wave groups. We employ the open-source CFD package openfoam to develop the numerical model. Three-dimensional gap resonance differs from its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in allowing spatial structure along the gap and hence multiple modes can easily be excited in the gap by waves of moderate spectral bandwidth. In terms of numerical setup and computational cost, a 3D simulation is much more challenging than a 2D simulation and requires careful selection of relevant parameters. In this respect, the mesh topology and size, domain size and boundary conditions are systematically optimized. It is shown that to accurately reproduce the experimental results in this case, the cell size must be adequate to resolve both the undisturbed incident waves and near-wall boundary layer. By using a linear iterative method, the NewWave-type transient wave group used in the experiment is accurately recreated in the numerical wave tank (NWT). Numerical results including time series of gap responses, resonant amplitudes and frequencies, and mode shapes show excellent agreement with experimental data.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Definition sketch of the 3D numerical wave tank. (N.B. Bg is scaled up by a factor of 4 in the figures). WG 1–8 are labeled with numbers; WG 8 is only available in the numerical simulation.

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Fig. 2

Time series of the experimental free surface elevations measured at midship position in the gap (WG 4) with (response) and without (input) boxes

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Fig. 3

Definition sketch of the mesh adopted. Regions A–D reference the mesh details that indicate the key mesh dimensions.

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Fig. 4

Time series of the free surface elevations at the focus position for test A1–A6. η is used to represent free surface elevation of the undisturbed incident waves.

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Fig. 5

Amplitude spectrum at the focus position for test A1–A4

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Fig. 6

Time series of the 2D responses at different locations with various near-wall cell sizes. φ is used to represent free surface elevation of the responses after interaction with the structures.

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Fig. 7

Illustration of the interface between air and water near the gap with various aspect ratios. Note that the images are of the same scale with frame length of 0.12λp captured at the same instant; colors represent volume fraction: top red region (γ = 0) and bottom blue region (γ = 1) represent air and water, respectively, while green is intermediate and indicates the interface between air and water.

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Fig. 8

Time series of the free surface elevations with various aspect ratios

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Fig. 9

Time series of the free surface elevations with various cell sizes in the transverse direction

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Fig. 10

Dependency of the wave amplification in the gap on the nondimensional wave number kh with different wave tank lengths

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Fig. 11

Comparison between the free surface elevations recorded near the side-wall of the 3D NWT and the undisturbed incident wave

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Fig. 12

Free surface elevations measured at the gap center (WG 4) with different wave tank widths

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Fig. 13

Time series of the 3D gap responses using the “half” and the “entire” computational domains. Dashed and dotted lines: symmetrical positions in the entire domain; Solid line: half domain.

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Fig. 14

The evolution of total time series and amplitude spectrum using scheme 2. Solid line: experimental results; Dotted line: numerical results. From top to bottom: first to fourth iteration.

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Fig. 15

The evolution of total time series and amplitude spectrum using scheme 4. Solid line: experimental results; Dotted line: numerical results. From top to bottom: first to fourth iteration.

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Fig. 16

The evolution of linearized time series and amplitude spectrum using scheme 5. Solid line: experimental results; Dotted line: numerical results. From top to bottom: first to fourth iteration.

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Fig. 17

Spectra of the input control signals at the inlet boundary and the recorded linear wave signal at the focus position

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Fig. 18

Time series of the free surface elevations in wave reflection tests. The domain lengths are (a) 12 m and (b) 4.7 m.

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Fig. 19

Comparison of the numerically recreated and the experimental transient wave groups. η1st and η0 stand for the linear and crest-focused total free surface elevations, A1st and A0 the linear and crest-focused total constituent amplitudes, θ1st and θ0 the linear and crest-focused total constituent phases.

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Fig. 20

Dependency of the wave amplification in the gap on frequency f for the numerical and the experimental results

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Fig. 21

Time series of the 3D gap responses under the crest-focused transient wave group. Solid line: experimental results; dotted line: numerical results of E3 (Δx2 = 0.1 mm). 1–4φ0 stand for the crest-focused responses measured at WG 1–4.

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Fig. 22

Mode shapes of the free surface elevations in the gap. |y| refers to the distance away from the midship position y=0; Amy=0 is the amplitude of mth mode shape measured at y=0 with m=1, 3, 5, 7. Lines: numerical results; hollow symbols: experimental results.

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