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Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

On the Significance of the Higher-Order Stress in Riser Vortex-Induced Vibrations Responses

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Wu

SINTEF Ocean,
Otto Nielsen veg 10,
Trondheim 7052, Norway
e-mail: Jie.Wu@sintef.no

Decao Yin

SINTEF Ocean,
Otto Nielsen veg 10,
Trondheim 7052, Norway
e-mail: Decao.Yin@sintef.no

Halvor Lie

SINTEF Ocean,
Otto Nielsen veg 10,
Trondheim 7052, Norway
e-mail: Lie.Halvor@sintef.no

Carl M. Larsen

NTNU,
Otto Nielsen veg 10,
Trondheim 7052, Norway
e-mail: carl.m.larsen@ntnu.no

Rolf J. Baarholm

Equinor,
Strandvegen 4,
Stjørdal 7500, Norway
e-mail: rolbaa@equinor.com

Stergios Liapis

Shell International Exploration and
Production Inc.,
3333 Highway 6 South—Mg 148.,
Houston, TX 77210
e-mail: liapis101@gmail.com

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 19, 2017; final manuscript received July 1, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yi-Hsiang Yu.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(1), 011705 (Aug 20, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4040798 History: Received July 19, 2017; Revised July 01, 2018

Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) can lead to fast accumulation of fatigue damage and increased drag loads for slender marine structures. VIV responses mainly occur at the vortex shedding frequency, while higher harmonics can also be excited. Recent VIV model tests with flexible pipes have shown that higher harmonics in the crossflow (CF) direction can contribute to the fatigue damage significantly due to its higher frequency. Rigid cylinder experiments show that the CF third-order harmonics are more pronounced when the motion orbit is close to a “figure 8” shape and the cylinder is moving against the flow at its largest CF motion. However, there is still lack of understanding of when and where higher harmonics occur for a flexible pipe. Therefore, significant uncertainty remains on how to account for fatigue damage due to higher harmonics in VIV prediction. In the present paper, representative VIV data from various riser model test campaigns are carefully studied and analyzed. The key parameters that influence the magnitude of the third-order harmonic stress are found to be the bending stiffness, the reduced velocity, and the orbit stability. The experimental data are analyzed in order to assess the impact of each parameter on the third-order harmonic stress. A preliminary empirical response model to estimate the maximum CF third-order harmonic stress based on these identified structural and hydrodynamic parameters has been proposed. The results of this study will contribute to reduce the uncertainty and unnecessary conservatism in VIV prediction.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Typical motion orbits. The orbit direction is indicated by the direction of the arrow. The flow is coming from right to left.

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Fig. 1

An example of the CF acceleration spectrum

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Fig. 4

Crossflow and IL strain plot for ExxonMobil test 1218. No clear traveling waves are observed in the IL direction.

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Fig. 7

Response example when the first part of the time series is chaotic and the last becomes stationary. Wavelet analysis of selected curvature measurements for Shell test 3119. The flow speed profile at measurement location is shown in the first plot. Four measured curvature signals are selected to be analyzed. Their locations along the riser are marked by filled circles.

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Fig. 3

Crossflow and IL curvature plot for Shell test 3119 (stationary response time window). Note that the slope of the dashed line gives an estimate of the traveling speed.

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Fig. 8

Example of chaotic response type. Orbits, motion phase angle, and curvature for Shell test 3119 (chaotic response time window 47–49 s). Flow comes from right to left: (a) orbits along the pipe, (b) motion phase angle, and (c) curvature of the 3 × ω component.

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Fig. 5

Example of traveling wave type response. Orbits, motion phase angle, and curvature for Shell test 3119. Flow comes from right to left.

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Fig. 6

Example of standing wave type response. Orbits, motion phase angle, and curvature for the Shell test 3102. Flow comes from right to left.

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Fig. 11

Preliminary empirical response model (black lines) to estimate 3 × ω/1 × ω bending stress ratio. The dots are the data points from Shell, NDP, ExxonMobil, Hanøytangen, and MIAMI II tests.

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Fig. 15

Eigenfrequencies of the NDP high mode VIV test pipe. The squares represent the eigenfrequencies of a tensioned string; the circles represent the eigenfrequencies of a beam; and the diamonds represent the actual eigenfrequencies of a tensioned beam. The mean tension is about 4000 N in this case.

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Fig. 16

Eigenfrequencies of the ExxonMobil rotating rig test pipe. The squares represent the eigenfrequencies of a tensioned string; the circles represent the eigenfrequencies of a beam; and the diamonds represent the actual eigenfrequencies of a tensioned beam. The mean tension is about 700 N in this case.

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Fig. 12

Eigenfrequencies of the Shell 38m test (pipe2). The squares represent the eigenfrequencies of a tensioned string; the circles represent the eigenfrequencies of a beam; and the diamonds represent the actual eigenfrequencies of a tensioned beam. The mean tension is about 4000 N in this case.

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Fig. 13

Eigenfrequencies of the Hanøytangen test pipe. The squares represent the eigenfrequencies of a tensioned string; the circles represent the eigenfrequencies of a beam; and the diamonds represent the actual eigenfrequencies of a tensioned beam.

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Fig. 14

Eigenfrequencies of the MIAMI II test pipe. The squares represent the eigenfrequencies of a tensioned string; the circles represent the eigenfrequencies of a beam; and the diamonds represent the actual eigenfrequencies of a tensioned beam.

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Fig. 9

Maximum 3 × ω/1 × ω stress ratio versus relative bending stiffness contribution

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Fig. 10

Influence of the bending stiffness on the significance of the 3 × ω stress ratio of an flexible pipe subjected to sheared flow profiles. The color and shape of the symbols represent different response characteristics. The diamond symbol represents the chaotic response. The red circular symbol represents the stationary response dominated by traveling waves. The blue circular symbol represents the stationary response dominated by standing waves. The triangular symbol represents data taken from total time window, which may include both chaotic and stationary response time periods. The data have also been grouped in terms of CF mode order.

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