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Research Papers: Piper and Riser Technology

Experimental Investigation of Residual Ultimate Strength of Damaged Metallic Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Cai

Department of Maritime and
Transport Technology,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: J.Cai-2@tudelft.nl

Xiaoli Jiang

Department of Maritime and
Transport Technology,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: X.Jiang@tudelft.nl

Gabriel Lodewijks

Professor
School of Aviation,
University of New South Wales,
Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia
e-mail: g.lodewijks@unsw.edu.au

Zhiyong Pei

Departments of Naval Architecture,
Ocean and Structural Engineering,
School of Transportation,
Wuhan University of Technology,
Wuhan, China
e-mail: 15827146278@163.com

Ling Zhu

Professor
Departments of Naval Architecture,
Ocean and Structural Engineering,
School of Transportation,
Wuhan University of Technology,
Wuhan, China
e-mail: ZL79111@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 13, 2017; final manuscript received July 18, 2018; published online August 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nianzhong Chen.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(1), 011703 (Aug 13, 2018) (21 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1205; doi: 10.1115/1.4040974 History: Received November 13, 2017; Revised July 18, 2018

The ultimate strength of metallic pipelines will be inevitably affected when they have suffered from structural damage after mechanical interference. The present experiments aim to investigate the residual ultimate bending strength of metallic pipes with structural damage based on large-scale pipe tests. Artificial damage, such as a dent, metal loss, a crack, and combinations thereof, is introduced to the pipe surface in advance. Four-point bending tests are performed to investigate the structural behavior of metallic pipes in terms of bending moment–curvature diagrams, failure modes, bending capacity, and critical bending curvatures. Test results show that the occurrence of structural damage on the pipe compression side reduces the bending capacity significantly. Only a slight effect has been observed for pipes with damage on the tensile side as long as no fracture failure appears. The possible causes that have introduced experimental errors are presented and discussed. The test data obtained in this paper can be used to further quantify damage effects on bending capacity of seamless pipes with similar D/t ratios. The comparison results in this paper can facilitate the structural integrity design as well as the maintenance of damaged pipes when mechanical interference happens during the service life of pipelines.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sketches of three different types of damage on the external surface of specimens (a dent, a notch, and combined dent and notch)

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Fig. 2

A dent damage on the pipe surface with the schema of dent parameters in terms of dent width (wd), length (ld), and angle (θd): (a) the dent on S2N2 (90 deg), (b) the dent on S2N3 (45 deg), and (c) the dent on S2N4 (0 deg)

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Fig. 3

The configuration of four-point bending structural test: (a) the design of bending test setup and (b) the real test setup in the laboratory

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Fig. 4

Scheme of bending data calculation in four-point bending test

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Fig. 5

Measurement tools in bending test: (a) configuration of the customized displacement meter on a specimen, (b) customized displacement meter, and (c) LVDT for measurement of vertical displacement and its configuration

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Fig. 6

Configuration of test setups for produce of a dent: (a) quasi-static indentation and (b) impact indentation

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Fig. 7

The variation of indentor angle and shape in the indentation: (a) 90 deg, cylindrical shape, (b) 90 deg, rectangular shape, (c) 0 deg, cylindrical shape, and (d) different types of indentors

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Fig. 8

Notch and crack damage on pipe surface: (a) single notch, (b) single crack (the crack can be seen from the zooming in area), (c) combined notch and crack (the crack can be seen from the zooming in area), and (d) combined dent, notch, and crack

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Fig. 9

The material stress–strain relationship from tensile tests: (a) coupons L1 and L2, (b) coupons L5 and L7, and (c) coupons H3 and H4

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Fig. 10

The sketch of measuring points for thickness on a pipe surface

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Fig. 11

The 95% confidence interval of wall thickness and outer diameter of specimens: (a) wall thickness and (b) outer diameter

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Fig. 12

The variations of pipe thickness and outer diameter on measured points along the pipe longitudinal direction: (a) wall thickness and (b) outer diameter

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Fig. 13

The variation relationship between bending arm and loading time: (a) specimen S1N4, (b) specimen S2N10, (c) specimen S4N4, and (d) specimen S5N5

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Fig. 14

The failure modes of specimens with damage on the compression side: (a) intact specimen (S1N4), (b) dented specimen (S2N4), (c) specimen with metal loss (S3N1), and (d) specimen with single crack (S4N13)

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Fig. 15

The failure modes of specimens with combined damage: (a) specimen with combined damage on the compression side (S5N1) and (b) specimen with combined damage on the tensile side (S5N5)

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Fig. 16

Comparison of ultimate bending strength between intact specimens and existing analytical solutions

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Fig. 17

The relationship between bending features in terms of Mcr and κcr and pipe slenderness: (a) normalized bending capacity (Mcr/My) and (b) normalized critical curvature (κcr/κ0)

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Fig. 18

Dent effect on ultimate strength of specimen in different scenarios: (a) ultimate bending moment and (b) critical curvature

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Fig. 19

Notch and combined damage effects on ultimate strength of specimens in different scenarios: (a) ultimate bending moment and (b) critical curvature

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Fig. 20

Crack effect on ultimate strength of specimens in different scenarios: (a) ultimate bending moment and (b) critical curvature

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Fig. 21

Moment–curvature diagrams of intact specimens: (a) S1N1, (b) S1N2, (c) S1N3, and (d) S1N4

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Fig. 22

Moment–curvature diagrams of dented specimens: (a) S2N2 with a 90 deg dent, (b) S2N3 with a 45 deg dent, (c) S2N4 with a 0 deg dent, (d) S2N5 with a 90 deg dent, (e) S2N6 with a 90 deg dent, and (f) S2N7 with a 90 deg dent on the tensile side

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Fig. 23

Moment–curvature diagrams of specimens with impact-induced dent (all on the compression side): (a) S2N8 with a 90 deg dent, (b) S2N9 with a 90 deg dent, (c) S2N10 with a 90 deg dent, and (d) S2N11 with a 90 deg dent

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Fig. 24

Moment–curvature diagrams of specimens with metal loss damage: (a) S3N1 with metal loss on the compression side, (b) S3N2 with metal loss on the compression side, (c) S3N3 with metal loss on the compression side, (d) S3N4 with metal loss on the tensile side, and (e) S3N5 with metal loss on the tensile side

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Fig. 25

Moment–curvature diagrams of specimens with shallow crack: (a) S4N1 with a crack in hoop direction on the tensile side, (b) S4N3 with a crack in hoop direction on the compression side, (c) S4N4 with a crack in longitudinal direction on the compression side, and (d) S4N5 with a longitudinal direction on the tensile side

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Fig. 26

Moment–curvature diagrams of specimens with deep crack: (a) S4N8 with a crack in hoop direction on the tensile side, (b) S4N10 with a crack in hoop direction on the tensile side, (c) S4N11 with a crack in hoop direction on the compression side, and (d) S4N13 with a crack in longitudinal direction on the compression side

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Fig. 27

Moment–curvature diagrams of specimens with combined damage: (a) S5N1 with combined dent, notch and crack on the compression side, (b) S5N2 with combined dent, notch and crack on the compression side, (c) S5N3 with combined notch and crack on the tensile side, (d) S5N4 with combined notch and crack on the tensile side, and (e) S5N5 with combined notch and crack on the tensile side

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