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Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

Ice Pressure Prediction Based on the Probabilistic Method for Ice-Going Vessels in Inland Waterways

[+] Author and Article Information
Meng Zhang

SCI-Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering,
Royal Institute of Technology,
KTH Fakturaservice,
Box 24075,
Stockholm 104 50, Sweden
e-mail: mengzh@kth.se

Harsha Cheemakurthy

SCI-Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering,
Royal Institute of Technology,
KTH Fakturaservice,
Box 24075,
Stockholm 104 50, Sweden
e-mail: harsha@kth.se

Sören Ehlers

Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Hamburg University of Technology,
Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 4C,
Hamburg 21073, Germany
e-mail: ehlers@tuhh.de

R. U. Franz von Bock und Polach

Institute for Ship Structural Design and Analysis,
Hamburg University of Technology,
Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 4C,
Hamburg 21073, Germany
e-mail: franz.vonbock@tuhh.de

Karl Garme

SCI-Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering,
Royal Institute of Technology,
KTH Fakturaservice,
Box 24075,
Stockholm 104 50, Sweden
e-mail: garme@kth.se

Magnus Burman

SCI-Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering,
Royal Institute of Technology,
KTH Fakturaservice,
Box 24075,
Stockholm 104 50, Sweden
e-mail: mburman@kth.se

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 11, 2018; final manuscript received July 24, 2018; published online October 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yordan Garbatov.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(2), 021501 (Oct 01, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: OMAE-18-1038; doi: 10.1115/1.4041015 History: Received April 11, 2018; Revised July 24, 2018

With increasing need to utilize inland waterways (IWW), the design of IWW vessels gains attention both from a transport efficiency and an emission control point of view. The primary challenge is to estimate the ice pressure acting on the ship hull for IWW. Ice information for Lake Mälaren is extracted and analyzed in this work. Since the ice properties have great influence on the impact load, they are studied based on empirical formulae and are calibrated by reference data. The ice impact is then predicted for an IWW barge. Probabilistic method is selected to derive the load based on available field test data. Several parent datasets are chosen, and different design strategies are implemented to evaluate the ice impact load and investigate the influence from exposure factors. The paper finds that the design curve of α=0.265a0.57 can be used for Lake Mälaren. The approach itself introduces a possible way to investigate loads on ice-affected IWW.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Pressure , Design , Ice , Stress
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References

Kujala, P. , and Sankar, A. , 2012, “ Statistical Analysis of Ice Crushing Pressures on a Ship's Hull During Hull–Ice Interaction,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 70, pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Lubbad, R. , and Løset, S. , 2011, “ A Numerical Model for Real-Time Simulation of Ship–Ice Interaction,” Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 65(2), pp. 111–127. [CrossRef]
Jordaan, I. , Maes, M. , Brown, P. , and Hermans, I. , 1993, “ Probabilistic Analysis of Local Ice Pressures,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 115(1), pp. 83–89. [CrossRef]
Ralph, F. , and Jordaan, I. J. , 2013, “ Probabilistic Methodology for Design of Arctic Ships,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10533.
Masterson, D. , and Frederking, R. , 1993, “ Local Contact Pressures in Ship/Ice and Structure/Ice Interactions,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 21(2), pp. 169–185. [CrossRef]
Trafi, 2010, “ Finnish-Swedish Ice Class Rules 2010,” Ice Class Regulations 2010, Finnish Transport Safety Agency, Espoo, Finland, Report No. TRAFI 31298.
Taylor, R. , Jordaan, I. , Li, C. , and Sudom, D. , 2010, “ Local Design Pressures for Structures in Ice: Analysis of Full-Scale Data,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 132(3), p. 031502. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. , Taylor, R. , Kennedy, A. , Simões Ré, A. , and Veitch, B. , 2015, “ Probabilistic Analysis of Local Ice Loads on a Lifeboat Measured in Full-Scale Field Trials,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 137(4), p. 041501. [CrossRef]
Tõns, T. , Freeman, R. , Ehlers, S. , and Jordaan, I. J. , 2015, “ Probabilistic Design Load Method for the Northern Sea Route,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2015-41841.
Timco, G. W. , and O'Brien, S. , 1994, “ Flexural Strength Equation for Sea Ice,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 22(3), pp. 285–298. [CrossRef]
Timco, G. , and Weeks, W. , 2010, “ A Review of the Engineering Properties of Sea Ice,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 60(2), pp. 107–129. [CrossRef]
Kujala, P. , 1994, “ On the Statistics of Ice Loads on Ship Hull in the Baltic,” Ph. D. dissertation. Acta Polytechina Scandinavica, Helsinki, Finland.
Riska, K. , Wilhelmson, M. , Englund, K. , and Leiviskä, T. , 1997, “ Performance of Merchant Vessels in the Baltic,” Ship Laboratory, Winter Navigation Research Board, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, Research Report No. 52.
Keinonen, A. , and Browne, R. P. , 1991, “ Icebreaker Performance Prediction,” SNAME Trans., 99 , pp. 221–248 https://trid.trb.org/view/441830.
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Kujala, P. , Suominen, M. , and Riska, K. , 2009, “ Statistics of Ice Loads Measured on MT Uikku in the Baltic,” International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, Lulea, Sweden, pp. 415–425 https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1342291.
Frederking, R. , 2000, “ Local Ice Pressures From the Louis S. St Laurent 1994 North Pole Transit,” Canadian Hydraulics Centre, National Research Council, Ottawa, Report No. HYD-TR-054.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustrations of an ice floe interacting with a structure, and (a) global and (b) local areas [4]

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Fig. 3

Ice thickness distribution of Lake Mälaren for (a) past 20 years, (b) year 2011, (c) year 2013, and (d) year 2017

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Fig. 4

Weibull distribution PDF of ice thickness

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Fig. 5

CDF plot with different statistic methods for data in (a) 20 years, (b) year 2011, (c) year 2013, and (d) year 2017

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Fig. 6

Plots for 20-years data

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Fig. 7

Ice data plots include info of thickness, flexural strength, salinity: (a) three-dimensional plot and (b) two-dimensional plot

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Fig. 8

Ice data plot includes information on thickness, flexural strength, salinity, and ice forms (FY: first year ice)

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Fig. 9

The investigated vessel and its main particulars

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Fig. 10

General example of hierarchy of scantlings selection valid for FSICR [6]

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Fig. 11

Example of stiffened panel of the bow area: (a) from literature [4] and (b) m/s Amice

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Fig. 12

Plots of ice pressure versus area for ship-ice interaction based on different sets of data [4]

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Fig. 13

Definition of high-pressure area [12]

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Fig. 14

Results for direct calculation

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Fig. 15

Load prediction for one trip in terms of different design strategies and probabilities of exceedance: (a) Pe=0.5 and (b) Pe=0.01

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Fig. 16

Results comparison of four design strategies

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Fig. 17

Extreme local pressure prediction

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Fig. 18

Two proposed design curves for m/s Amice under Pe=0.01, μ=106, but (1) x0=0.15 and (2) x0=0

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Fig. 19

Comparison of design curves with reference datasets. (1) Design curve 1 for m/s Amiceα=0.15+0.256a−0.6; (2) Design curve 2 for m/s Amiceα=0.265a−0.57 ; (3) Design Curve α=1.25a−0.7; and (4) N. Bering 83 dataset α=0.27+0.28a−0.62.

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Fig. 20

von Mises stress distribution of m/s Amice under pressure P = 0.6 MPa

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Fig. 21

Comparison of (a) original structure and (b) redesigned structure

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Fig. 22

Two different loading areas: (a) area with support (LA1) and (b area without support (LA2)

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Fig. 23

von Mises stress distribution of the panel for (a) LA1, P=2.622 MPa, (b) LA2,P=2.622 MPa, and (c) LA2, P=1.25 MPa

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