0
Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

Experimental Investigation of Vertical Marine Surface Icing in Periodic Spray and Cold Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Alireza Dehghani-Sanij

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: adehghani@mun.ca

Maziyar Mahmoodi

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: mm32205@mun.ca

Saeed-Reza Dehghani

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: srdehghani@mun.ca

Yuri S. Muzychka

Mem. ASME
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: yurim@mun.ca

Greg F. Naterer

Mem. ASME
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: gnaterer@mun.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 22, 2018; final manuscript received August 29, 2018; published online October 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(2), 021502 (Oct 12, 2018) (16 pages) Paper No: OMAE-18-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4041394 History: Received March 22, 2018; Revised August 29, 2018

In this paper, the ice load accumulated on a vertical plate of marine platforms during periodic spray icing in a cold room was investigated experimentally. The mass and thickness of ice formation on the plate along with several parameters such as relative humidity, the front and back surface temperatures of the vertical plate, initial temperature of water, and the spray mass flux impinging on the plate were measured and discussed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), which is a statistical data analysis method, was utilized to interpret the contribution of the investigated parameters during the icing experiments, comparing the effect of each parameter and their interactions on the quantity of ice accumulated on the vertical plate. The primary analysis of the empirical results illustrates that the ambient temperature, airflow velocity, the distance between the fan and the plate, salinity and the timing of spray events have influences in the icing intensity and the amount of ice formation on the vertical plate. The errors between the average ice thicknesses obtained from two different experimental approaches were from 5 to 20%. For the saline ice formation, the temperature difference between the front and back of the vertical plate was greater than that of the pure ice formed during the spray icing event. The primary experimental results alongside the ANOVA analysis verified that airflow velocity is the most effective parameter, with a high level of interaction for time and temperature.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Dehghani, S. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2017, “ Sea Spray Icing Phenomena on Marine Vessels and Offshore Structures: Review and Formulation,” Ocean Eng., 132, pp. 25–39. [CrossRef]
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Dehghani, S. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2017, “ Marine Icing Phenomena on Vessels and Offshore Structures: Prediction and Analysis,” Ocean Eng., 143, pp. 1–23. [CrossRef]
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , 2017, “ Theoretical and Experimental Study of Heat Loss and Ice Accretion From Large Structures on the Marine Vessels and Offshore Structures,” Ph.D. thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN), St John's, NL, Canada.
Rashid, T. , Khawaja, H. A. , and Edvardsen, K. , 2016, “ Review of Marine Icing and Anti-/de-Icing Systems,” J. Mar. Eng. Technol., 15(2), pp. 79–87. [CrossRef]
Cammaert, G. , 2013, “ Impact of Marine Icing on Arctic Offshore Operations,” Pilot Project, Vol. 5 of Arctic Marine Operations Challenges & Recommendations, Kinderdijk, The Netherlands, Report, IHC-OTI/ 38028.
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Naterer, G. F. , 2015, “ Analysis of Ice Accretion on Vertical Surfaces of Marine Vessels and Structures in Arctic Conditions,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2015-41306.
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Naterer, G. F. , 2016, “ Predicted Ice Accretion on Horizontal Surfaces of Marine Vessels and Offshore Structures in Arctic Regions,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2016-54054.
Feit, D. M. , 1987, “ Forecasting of Superstructure Icing for Alaskan Waters,” Natl. Weather Dig., 12(2), pp. 5–10. http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/mmab/papers/tn12/OPC12.pdf
Fukusako, S. , Horibe, A. , and Tago, M. , 1989, “ Ice Accretion Characteristics along a Circular Cylinder Immersed in a Cold Air Stream With Seawater Spray,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 2(1), pp. 81–90. [CrossRef]
Jessup, R. G. , 1985, “ Forecast Techniques for Ice Accretion on Different Types of Marine Structures, Including Ships, Platforms and Coastal Facilities, Marine Meteorological and Related Oceanographic Activities,” WMO Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland, Report No. WMO/TD-No. 70.
Jørgensen, T. S. , 1982, “ Influence of Ice Accretion on Activity in the Northern Part of the Norwegian Continental Shelf,” Continental Shelf Institute, Norwegian Hydrodynamic Laboratories, Trondheim, Norway, Report No. F82016.
Lock, G. S. H. , 1972, “ Some Aspects of Ice Formation With Special Reference to the Marine Environment,” North East Coast Inst. Eng. Shipbuilders, 88(6), pp. 175–184. https://archive.org/details/transactionsnor00upogoog
Lundqvist, J. E. , and Udin, I. , 1977, “ Ice Accretion on Ships With Special Emphasis on Baltic Conditions,” Winter Navigation Research Board, Swedish Administration of Shipping and Navigation, Finnish Board of Navigation, Norrköping, Sweden, Research Report, No. 23.
Ryerson, C. C. , 2008, “ Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Problems, Hazards, Needs, and Potential Transfer Technologies,” U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, Report No. ERDC/CRREL TR-08-14.
Ryerson, C. C. , 2009, “ Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs,” U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH, Report No. ERDC/CRREL TR-09-4.
Ryerson, C. C. , 2011, “ Ice Protection of Offshore Platforms,” Cold Regi. Sci. Tech., 65(1), pp. 97–110. [CrossRef]
Wiersema, E. , Lange, F. , Cammaert, G. , Sliggers, F. , Jolles, W. , and Van Der Nat, C. , 2014, “ Arctic Operations Handbook JIP,” OTC Arctic Technology Conference, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, Feb. 10–12, Paper No. OTC-24545-MS.
Aksyutin, L. R. , 1979, Icing of Ships, Sudostroeyne Publishing House, Leningrad, (in Russian) p. 126.
Brown, R. D. , and Roebber, P. , 1985, “ The Scope of the Ice Accretion Problem in Canadian Waters Related to Offshore Energy and Transportation,” Canadian Climate Centre, AES, Downsview, Toronto, ON, Canada, Report No. 85.13.
Bodaghkhani, A. , Dehghani, S. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Colbourne, B. , 2016, “ Understanding Spray Cloud Formation by Wave Impact on Marine Objects,” Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 129, pp. 114–136. [CrossRef]
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2017, “ Heat Transfer of Impinging Seawater Spray and Ice Accumulation on Marine Vessel Surfaces,” Heat Transfer Res., 48(17), pp. 1599–1624. [CrossRef]
Dehghani-Sanij, A. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Naterer, G. F. , 2018, “ Droplet Trajectory and Thermal Analysis of Impinging Saline Spray Flow on Marine Platforms in Cold Seas and Ocean Regions,” Ocean Eng., 148, pp. 538–547. [CrossRef]
Shekhtman, A. N. , 1968, “ The Probability and Intensity of the Icing Up of Ocean Going Vessels,” Moskow Nauk-Issled Institute, Aeroklim, Moscow, Russia, pp. 55–65.
Shellard, H. C. , 1974, “ The Meteorological Aspects of Ice Accretion on Ships,” World Meteorological Organization, Marine Science Affairs, Geneva, Switzerland, Report No. 10 (WMO-No. 397).
Tabata, T. , Iwata, S. , and Ono, N. , 1963, “ Studies on the Ice Accumulation on Ships I,” Low Temp. Sci., Ser. A, Phys. Sci., 21, pp. 173–221.
Zakrzewski, W. P. , 1986, “ Icing of Fishing Vessels, Part I: Splashing a Ship With Spray,” Eighth IAHR Symposium on Ice, Iowa City, IA.
Zakrzewski, W. P. , 1987, “ Splashing a Ship With Collision-Generated Spray,” Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 14(1), pp. 65–83. [CrossRef]
Blackmore, R. Z. , and Lozowski, E. P. , 1994, “ An Heuristic Freezing Spray Model of Vessel Icing,” Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng., 4(2), pp. 119–126. https://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/ISOPE-94-04-2-119
Guest, P. , 2005, “ Vessel Icing,” Mariners Weather Log, 49(3), pp. 1–8.
Zakrzewski, W. P. , and Lozowski, E. P. , 1989, “ Modelling and Forecasting Vessel Icing,” Freezing and Melting Heat Transfer in Engineering, K. C. Cheng , and N. Seki , eds., Hemisphere, New York, pp. 661–706.
Brown, R. D. , and Mitten, P. , 1988, “ Ice Accretion on Drilling Platforms Off the East Coast of Canada,” International Conference on Technology for Polar Areas, A. Hansen , and J. F. Storm , eds., pp. 409–421.
Makkonen, L. , 1989, “ Formation of Spray Ice on Offshore Structures,” U.S. Army Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, IAHR State-of-the-Art Report on Ice Forces, CRREL Special, Hanover, NH, Report No. 89-5 277-309.
Nauman, J. W. , and Tyagi, R. , 1985, “ Sea Spray Icing and Freezing Conditions on Offshore Oil rigs-Alaska Experience and Regulatory Implications,” International Workshop on Offshore Winds and Icing, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, pp. 313–328.
Dehghani, S. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Naterer, G. F. , 2016, “ Droplet Trajectories of Wave-Impact Sea Spray on a Marine Vessel,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 127, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Dehghani, S. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2016, “ Droplet Size and Velocity Distributions of Wave-Impact Sea Spray Over a Marine Vessel,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 132, pp. 60–67. [CrossRef]
Dehghani, S. R. , Muzychka, Y. S. , and Naterer, G. F. , 2017, “ Water Breakup Phenomena in Wave-Impact Sea Spray on a Vessel,” Ocean Eng., 134, pp. 50–61. [CrossRef]
Dehghani, S. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2018, “ 3-D Trajectory Analysis of Wave-Impact Sea Spray Over a Marine Vessel,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 146, pp. 72–80. [CrossRef]
Kulyakhtin, A. , and Tsarau, A. , 2014, “ A Time-Dependent Model of Marine Icing With Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics,” Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 104–105, pp. 33–44. [CrossRef]
Lozowski, E. P. , Szilder, K. , and Makkonen, L. , 2000, “ Computer Simulation of Marine Ice Accretion,” R. Soc. London Philos. Trans. Ser. A, 358(1776), pp. 2811–2845. [CrossRef]
Horjen, I. , and Vefsnmo, S. , 1985, “ A Kinematic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Sea Spray, Offshore Icing-Phase II,” Norwegian Hydrodynamic Laboratory (NHL), Norwegian, Norway, Report No. STF60 F85014.
Jones, K. F. , and Andreas, E. L. , 2012, “ Sea Spray Concentrations and the Icing of Fixed Offshore Structures,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 138(662), pp. 131–144. [CrossRef]
Dehghani, S. R. , Naterer, G. F. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2017, “ Transient Heat Conduction Through a Substrate of Brine Spongy Ice,” Heat Mass Transfer, 53(8), pp. 2719–2729. [CrossRef]
Fazelpour, A. , Dehghani, S. R. , Masek, V. , and Muzychka, Y. S. , 2017, “ Ice Load Measurements on Known Structures Using Image Processing Methods,” World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. Int. J. Electr. Comput. Energy Electron. Commun. Eng., 11, pp. 829–832.
Lozowski, E. P. , Stallabrass, J. R. , and Hearty, P. F. , 1983, “ The Icing of an Unheated, Non-Rotating Cylinder, Part I: A Simulation Model,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22(12), pp. 2053–2062. [CrossRef]
Szilder, K. , Forest, T. W. , and Lozowski, E. P. , 1995, “ Experimental Verification of a Pendant Ice Formation Model,” Fifth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference II, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 469–475.
Horjen, I. , 2013, “ Numerical Modeling of Two-Dimensional Sea Spray Icing on Vessel-Mounted Cylinders,” Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 93, pp. 20–35. [CrossRef]
Horjen, I. , 2015, “ Offshore Drilling Rig Ice Accretion Modeling Including a Surficial Brine Film,” Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 119, pp. 84–110. [CrossRef]
Soares, C. G. , and Garbatov, Y. eds., 2015, “Ships and Offshore Structures XIX,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Pringle, D. J. , Eicken, H. , Trodahl, H. J. , and Backstrom, L. G. E. , 2007, “ Thermal Conductivity of Landfast Antarctic and Arctic Sea Ice,” J. Geoph. Res., 112(C4), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
Brakel, T. W. , Charpin, J. P. F. , and Myers, T. G. , 2007, “ One-Dimensional Ice Growth Due to Incoming Supercooled Droplets Impacting on a Thin Conducting Substrate,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(9–10), pp. 1694–1705. [CrossRef]
Cox, G. F. N. , and Weeks, W. F. , 1983, “ Equations for Determining the Gas and Brine Volumes of Sea-Ice Samples,” J. Glaciol., 29(102), pp. 306–316. [CrossRef]
Kulyakhtin, A. , Kulyakhtin, S. , and Løset, S. , 2013, “ Measurements of Thermodynamic Properties of Ice Created by Frozen Spray,” 23 International Offshore and Polar Engineering, Anchorage, AK, pp. 1104–1111.
Anderson, M. J. , and Whitcomb, P. J. , 2016, DOE Simplified: Practical Tools for Effective Experimentation, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Vaughn, N. A. , and Polnaszek, C. , 2007, Design-Expert® Software, Stat-Ease, Minneapolis, MN.
Daniel, C. , 1959, “ Use of Half-Normal Plots in Interpreting Factorial Two-Level Experiments,” Technometrics, 1(4), pp. 311–341. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the experiment with all components [3]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the vertical plate. Note that all sizes in this figure are in mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Views of ice formation on the vertical plate at Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, and the distance of 1.65 m between the fan and the plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Classification of the experiments for various conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Views of ice accumulation on the vertical plate for (a) test (1-1-1-a; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, first repetition), (b) (1-2-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition), (c) (2-1-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s), and (d) (2-2-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variations of the ice weight obtained from the load cells versus time on the vertical plate for (a) test (1-1-1-a; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, first repetition), (b) (1-2-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition), (c) (2-1-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s), and (d) (2-2-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variations of the temperature at the front and back of the vertical plate versus time for (a) test (1-1-1-a; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, first repetition), (b) (1-2-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition), (c) (2-1-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s), and (d) (2-2-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect test for measured parameter based on the half-normal plot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

View of a narrow trapezoidal funnel and a small container

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Views of ice accumulation on the vertical plate at Vave,3 ≈ 2.65 m/s, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, RHave = 68.4%, including 3 s for the duration of each spray event and 1 min for the period between spray events

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Changes in (a) the ice weight obtained from load cells and (b) temperature at the front and back of the vertical plate versus time at Vave,3 ≈ 2.65 m/s, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, RHave = 68.4%, including 3 s for the duration of each spray event and 1 min for the period between spray events

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Views of ice accumulation on the vertical plate at Vave,3 ≈ 2.65 m/s, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, RHave = 69.6%, including 3 s for the duration of each spray event and 1 min for the period between spray events

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Changes in (a) the ice weight obtained from load cells and (b) temperature at the front and back of the vertical plate versus time at Vave,3 ≈ 2.65 m/s, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, RHave = 69.6%, including 3 s for the duration of each spray event and 1 min for the period between spray events

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Variations of the water temperature inside the pipe versus time for tests (a) (1-1-2-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 6 m/s, second repetition) and (b) (1-2-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Changes in the ice weight versus time for tests (1-1-1-a; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, first repetition) and (1-1-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Changes in the ice weight obtained from load cells versus time for tests (1-1-1-a; TC = -10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s) and (2-1-1; TC = −20 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Changes in the ice weight obtained from load cells versus time for three different fan speeds, TC = −20 °C, Sw = 35‰, and the distance of 2.5 m between the fan and the plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Changes in the ice weight versus time for two different times of spray event, TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,3 = 2.65 m/s and the distance of 2.5 m between the fan and the plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Temperature changes at the front and back surfaces of the vertical plate versus time for tests (1-1-1-b; TC = −10 °C, Sw = 0‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition) and (1-2-1-b; TC = -10 °C, Sw = 35‰, Vave,1 ≈ 7.85 m/s, second repetition)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Comparison of the amount of collided water mass and ice formation on the vertical plate versus time for different conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

The single parameter effect test (while other parameters are constantly at their midlevel)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

The actual value versus predicted value for the developed numerical model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Effect test for recognized interactions between main parameters (a) the effect of temperature–airflow velocity interaction, and (b) effect of time–airflow velocity interaction

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In