Research Papers: Ocean Renewable Energy

Power Optimization of Model-Scale Floating Wind Turbines Using Real-Time Hybrid Testing With Autonomous Actuation and Control1

[+] Author and Article Information
Samuel Kanner

Principle Power, Inc.,
Emeryville, CA 94608
e-mail: skanner@principlepowerinc.com

Elena Koukina

NK Labs, LLC,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: elena.koukina@gmail.com

Ronald W. Yeung

The Berkeley Marine Mechanics
Laboratory (BMML);
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California at Berkeley,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: rwyeung@berkeley.edu

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 15, 2017; final manuscript received August 1, 2018; published online January 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Carlos Guedes Soares.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(3), 031902 (Jan 17, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4041995 History: Received December 15, 2017; Revised August 01, 2018

Real-time hybrid testing of floating wind turbines is conducted at model scale. The semisubmersible, triangular platform, similar to the WindFloat platform, is built instead to support two, counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs). On account of incongruous scaling issues between the aerodynamic and the hydrodynamic loading, the wind turbines are not constructed at the same scale as the floater support. Instead, remote-controlled plane motors and propellers are used as actuators to mimic only the tangential forces on the wind-turbine blades, which are attached to the physical (floater-support) model. The application of tangential forces on the VAWTs is used to mimic the power production stage of the turbine. A control algorithm is implemented using the wind-turbine generators to optimize the platform heading and hence, the theoretical power absorbed by the wind turbines. This experimental approach only seeks to recreate the aerodynamic force, which contributes to the power production. In doing so, the generator control algorithm can thus be validated. The advantages and drawbacks of this hybrid simulation technique are discussed, including the need for low inertia actuators, which can quickly respond to control signals.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Owens, B. C. , Hurtado, J. E. , Paquette, J. A. , Griffith, D. T. , and Barone, M. , 2013, “Aeroelastic Modeling of Large Off-Shore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines: Development of the Offshore Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit,” AIAA Paper No. 2013-1552.
Borg, M. , and Collu, M. , 2015, “Offshore Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Dynamics Modelling State of the Art—Part III: Hydrodynamics and Coupled Modelling Approaches,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 46, pp. 296–310. [CrossRef]
Dabiri, J. O. , 2011, “Potential Order-of-Magnitude Enhancement of Wind Farm Power Density Via Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Arrays,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 3, p. 043104.
Hau, E. , and Platz, H. , 2000, Wind Turbines-Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Kanner, S. , Wang, L. , and Persson, P.-O. , 2016, “Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation of 2D Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 2016-1731.
Goupee, A. , Koo, B. , Lambrakos, K. , and Kimball, R. , 2012, “Model Tests for Three Floating Wind Turbine Concepts,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, Apr. 30–May 3, Paper No. OTC-23470-MS.
Azcona, J. , Bouchotrouch, F. , González, M. , Garciandía, J. , Munduate, X. , Kelberlau, F. , and Nygaard, T. A. , 2014, “Aerodynamic Thrust Modelling in Wave Tank Tests of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines Using a Ducted Fan,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 524(1), p. 012089.
Fowler, M. J. , Kimball, R. W. , Thomas, D. A. , and Goupee, A. J. , 2013, “Design and Testing of Scale Model Wind Turbines for Use in Wind/Wave Basin Model Tests of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10122.
Bayati, I. , Belloli, M. , Facchinetti, A. , and Giappino, S. , 2013, “Wind Tunnel Tests on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: A Proposal for Hardware-in-the-Loop Approach to Validate Numerical Codes,” Wind Eng., 37(6), pp. 557–568. [CrossRef]
Hall, M. , Moreno, J. , and Thiagarajan, K. , 2014, “Performance Specifications for Real-Time Hybrid Testing of 1:50-Scale Floating Wind Turbine Models,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2014-24497.
Martin, H. R. , 2011, “Development of a Scale Model Wind Turbine for Testing of Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME. https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/etd/1578/
Sauder, T. , Chabaud, V. , Thys, M. , Bachynski, E. E. , and Sæther, L. O. , 2016, “Real-Time Hybrid Model Testing of a Braceless Semi-Submersible Wind Turbine—Part I: The Hybrid Approach,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2016-54435.
Kanner, S. , Yeung, R. W. , and Koukina, E. , 2016, “Hybrid Testing of Model-Scale Floating Wind Turbines Using Autonomous Actuation and Control,” MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2016, Monterey, CA, Sept. 19–23, pp. 1–6.
Roddier, D. , Cermelli, C. , Aubault, A. , and Weinstein, A. , 2010, “WindFloat: A Floating Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 2(3), p. 033104.
Kanner, S. , and Persson, P.-O. , 2016, “Validation of a High-Order Large-Eddy Simulation Solver Using a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine,” AIAA J., 54(1), pp. 101–112. [CrossRef]
Strickland, J. H. , Webster, B. T. , and Nguyen, T. , 1979, “Vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental Study,” Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND-79-7058.
Strickland, J. H. , Smith, T. , and Sun, K. , 1981, “Vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental Study,” Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND-81-7017.
Wang, L. , 2015, “Discontinuous Galerkin Methods on Moving Domains With Large Deformations,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/84j5b9j8
Chan, A. S. , Dewey, P. A. , Jameson, A. , Liang, C. , and Smits, A. J. , 2011, “Vortex Suppression and Drag Reduction in the Wake of Counter-Rotating Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech., 679, pp. 343–382. [CrossRef]
Saouma, V. , and Sivaselvan, M. , 2008, Hybrid Simulation: Theory, Implementation and Applications, Taylor and Francis/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Chabaud, V. , Steen, S. , and Skjetne, R. , 2013, “Real-Time Hybrid Testing for Marine Structures: Challenges and Strategies,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10277.
Bachynski, E. E. , Chabaud, V. , and Sauder, T. , 2015, “Real-Time Hybrid Model Testing of Floating Wind Turbines: Sensitivity to Limited Actuation,” Energy Procedia, 80, pp. 2–12. [CrossRef]
Berthelsen, P. A. , Bachynski, E. E. , Karimirad, M. , and Thys, M. , 2016, “Real-Time Hybrid Model Tests of a Braceless Semi-Submersible Wind Turbine—Part III: Calibration of a Numerical Model,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2016-54640.
Bachynski, E. E. , Thys, M. , Sauder, T. , Chabaud, V. , and Saether, L. O. , 2016, “Real-Time Hybrid Model Testing of a Braceless Semi-Submersible Wind Turbine—Part II: Experimental Results,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2016-54437.
Hall, M. , and Goupee, A. J. , 2018, “Validation of a Hybrid Modeling Approach to Floating Wind Turbine Basin Testing,” Wind Energy, 21(6), pp. 391–408. [CrossRef]
Koukina, E. , 2014, “Simulation of Wind-Loading Torque on Turbines at Model Scale,” Master's thesis, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
Koukina, E. , Yeung, R. W. , and Kanner, S. , 2015, “Actuation of Wind-Loading Torque on Vertical Axis Turbines at Model Scale,” Marine Technology Society and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference (OCEANS 2015), Genova, Italy, May 18–21.
Jonkman, J. M. , Butterfield, S. , Musial, W. , and Scott, G. , 2009, “Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No. NREL/TP-500-38060. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/38060.pdf
Berthelsen, P. A. , Fylling, I. , Vita, L. , and Schmidt Paulsen, U. , 2012, “Conceptual Design of a Floating Support Structure and Mooring System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2012-83335.
Kanner, S. , 2015, “Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform With Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Kanner_berkeley_0028E_15814.pdf
Faludi, R. , 2010, Building Wireless Sensor Networks, O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA.
Premerlani, W. , and Bizard, P. , 2009, Direction Cosine Matrix IMU: Theory, DIY DRONE, pp. 13–15.
Euston, M. , Coote, P. , Mahony, R. , Kim, J. , and Hamel, T. , 2008, “A Complementary Filter for Attitude Estimation of a Fixed-Wing UAV,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Nice, France, Sept. 22–26, pp. 340–345.
Ashwill, T. D. , 1992, “Measured Data for the Sandia 34-Meter Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine,” Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND91-2228.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computer-aided design (CAD) drawing of a prototype of the platform in the ocean, with connecting mechanism shown in inset

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Computer-aided drawing of platform, in plan view with the incident wind, turbine rotation speed, and platform orientation. Here, the number of blades Nb is 3, though the turbine considered in this study only has two blades. A representative single point mooring system is shown with thin lines connecting to a universal joint and then emanating to three anchor points.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Elevation view of a multicolumn platform with definitions of platform and turbine geometry. The mooring system consisting of a universal joint with multiple mooring points is shown below the platform and the still waterline (SWL) is depicted with a dashed line.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Main components of experimental platform, at 1:82.3 scale, labeled by number, in the UC Berkeley Physical-Model Testing Facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Plan view of counter-rotating, two-bladed vertical-axis wind turbines with nondimensional spacing D¯, static offset azimuthal angle θ¯1, and incident wind direction β1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized power coefficient Cp* of two-dimensional simulations of counter-rotating turbines as a function of wind direction and turbine spacing D¯

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of hybrid simulation testing technique, with experimental model in the physical world and aerodynamic simulations performed in “computational world”

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic showing Xbee wireless modules used to communicate between microprocessors used in study. Each white rectangle symbolizes a single microprocessor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Instantaneous tangential force the actuators should apply depending on the desired resolution for one revolution (tip-speed ratio λ = 3.5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Diagram showing the idealized circuit of the jth generator and the actual circuit implemented to control platform orientation by varying Rj

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Yaw error and power generated during successful control of yaw heading of the platform in regular waves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of applied thrust force FT from the WIG against the desired thrust force FT* at medium resolution with λ = 3.5 as a function of time



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In