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Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

Scale Effect in Ice Flexural Strength

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Aly

Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: maly@mun.ca

Rocky Taylor

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: rstaylor@mun.ca

Eleanor Bailey Dudley

C-CORE,
Morrissey Road,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: eleanor.bailey@c-core.ca

Ian Turnbull

C-CORE,
Morrissey Road,
St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: ian.turnbull@c-core.ca

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 13, 2018; final manuscript received December 18, 2018; published online February 21, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(5), 051501 (Feb 21, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: OMAE-18-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4042388 History: Received September 13, 2018; Revised December 18, 2018

Ice flexural strength is an important parameter in the assessment of ice loads on the hulls of ice-class ships, sloped offshore structures, and sloped bridge piers. While scale effects in compressive ice strength are well known, there has been debate as to the extent of scale effects in ice flexural strength. To investigate scale effects during flexural failure of both freshwater and saline ice, a comprehensive up-to-date database of beam flexural strength measurements has been compiled. The database includes 2073 freshwater ice beam tests with beam volumes between 0.00016 and 2.197 m3, and 2843 sea ice beam tests with volumes between 0.00048 and 59.87 m3. The data show a considerable decrease in flexural strength as the specimen size increases, when examined over a large range of scales. Empirical models of freshwater ice flexural strength as a function of beam volume, and of saline ice as function of beam and brine volumes have been developed using regression analysis. For freshwater ice, the scale-dependent flexural strength is given as: σf=839(V/V1)0.13 For sea ice, the dependence of flexural strength has been modeled as: σ=1324(V/V1)0.054e4.969vb. Probabilistic models based on the empirical data were developed based on an analysis of the residuals, and can be used to enhance probabilistic analysis of ice loads where ice flexural strength is an input.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Freshwater ice flexural strength versus beam size

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Fig. 2

Sea ice flexural strength versus beam size

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Fig. 3

Cantilever beam test

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Fig. 4

Three-point bending test

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Fig. 5

Four-point beam test

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Fig. 6

Freshwater ice flexural strength versus ice temperature

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Fig. 7

Freshwater ice flexural strength versus beam volume using average values of strength for all tests with same beam volume

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Fig. 8

Plot of all freshwater ice flexural strength versus beam volume data grouped to indicate test location as either field or laboratory

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Fig. 9

Plot of all freshwater ice flexural strength versus beam volume data grouped according to test type

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Fig. 10

Plot of freshwater ice flexural strength tests versus beam volume grouped by test type (field data only)

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Fig. 11

Freshwater ice beam flexural strength versus beam volume for all field tests including corrected cantilever test data

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Fig. 12

Probability plot of residuals for three-parameter Weibull distribution

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Fig. 13

Weibull distribution histogram of residuals for freshwater ice  

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Fig. 14

Flexural strength versus square root of brine volume

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Fig. 15

Multi-year sea ice and freshwater ice flexural strength versus beam size

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Fig. 16

Brackish and sea ice flexural strength versus beam size

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Fig. 17

Plot of all sea ice flexural strength versus beam volume data grouped to indicate test location as either field or laboratory

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Fig. 18

Plot of field sea ice flexural strength versus beam volume data grouped according to test type

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Fig. 19

Plot of normalized field sea ice flexural strength versus beam volume

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Fig. 20

Probability plot of residuals for normal distribution

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Fig. 21

Normal distribution histogram of residuals for sea ice

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Fig. 22

Comparison between normalized sea ice and freshwater ice models

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