0
Research Papers: CFD and VIV

Numerical Investigation of Sediment Transport of Sandy Beaches by a Tsunami-Like Solitary Wave Based on Navier–Stokes Equations

[+] Author and Article Information
Cheng Liu

Pearl River Hydraulic Research Institute,
Pearl River Water Resources Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources,
Guangzhou, Guangdong 510611, China
e-mail: jacklc2004@163.com

Xiaojian Liu

Pearl River Hydraulic Research Institute,
Pearl River Water Resources Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources,
Guangzhou, Guangdong 510611, China;
School of Hydraulic Engineering,
Changsha University of Science and Technology,
Changsha, Hunan 410114, China;
School of Civil Engineering,
Sun Yet-Sen University,
Guangzhou, Guangdong 510611, China
e-mail: lxiaojian2010@163.com

Changbo Jiang

School of Hydraulic Engineering,
Changsha University of Science and Technology,
Changsha, Hunan 410114, China
e-mail: jiangchb@csust.edu.cn

Yong He

Pearl River Hydraulic Research Institute,
Pearl River Water Resources Commission of the Ministry of Water Resources,
Guangzhou, Guangdong 510611, China
e-mail: heyongwhu@126.com

Bin Deng

School of Hydraulic Engineering,
Changsha University of Science and Technology,
Changsha, Hunan 410114, China
e-mail: dengbin07@csust.edu.cn

Zihao Duan

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling,
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100101, China
e-mail: duanzh.18b@igsnrr.ac.cn

Zhiyuan Wu

School of Hydraulic Engineering,
Changsha University of Science and Technology,
Changsha, Hunan 410114, China
e-mail: zwu@csust.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Manuscript received October 15, 2018; final manuscript received April 2, 2019; published online May 9, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Xinshu Zhang.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(6), 061801 (May 09, 2019) (16 pages) Paper No: OMAE-18-1178; doi: 10.1115/1.4043504 History: Received October 15, 2018; Accepted April 03, 2019

To improve our current understanding of tsunami-like solitary waves interacting with sandy beach, a nonlinear three-dimensional numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool OpenFOAM® is first self-developed to better describe the wave propagation, sediment transport, and the morphological responses of seabed during wave runup and drawdown. The finite volume method (FVM) is employed to discretize the governing equations of Navier–Stokes equations, combining with an improved volume of fluid (VOF) method to track the free surface and a k–ε model to resolve the turbulence. The computational capability of the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport module is well calibrated by laboratory data from different published references. The results verify that the present numerical model can satisfactorily reproduce the flow characteristics, and sediment transport processes under a tsunami-like solitary wave. The water-sediment transport module is then applied to investigate the effects of prominent factors, such as wave height, water depth, and beach slope, in affecting the beach profile change. Finally, a dimensionless empirical equation is proposed to describe the transport volume of onshore sediment based on simulation results, and some proper parameters are recommended through the regression. The results can be significantly helpful to evaluate the process of transported sediment by a tsunami event.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Titov, V., Rabinovich, A. B., Mofjeld, H. O., Thomson, R. E., and González, F. I., 2005, “The Global Reach of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra Tsunami,” Science, 309(5743), pp. 2045–2048. [PubMed]
Mori, N., and Takahashi, T., 2012, “Nationwide Post Event Survey and Analysis of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami,” Coastal Eng. J., 54(1), pp. 1–27.
Morton, R. A., Gelfenbaum, G., and Jaffe, B. E., 2007, “Physical Criteria for Distinguishing Sandy Tsunami and Storm Deposits Using Modern Examples,” Sediment. Geol., 200(3), pp. 184–207.
Jaffe, B. E., Goto, K., Sugawara, D., Richmond, B., Fujino, S., and Nishimura, Y., 2012, “Flow Speed Estimated by Inverse Modeling of Sandy Tsunami Deposits: Results From the 11 March 2011 Tsunami on the Coastal Plain Near the Sendai Airport, Honshu, Japan,” Sediment. Geol., 282, pp. 90–109.
Jaffe, B., Gelfenbaum, G., Rubin, D., Peters, R., Anima, R., Swensson, M., Olceses, D., Bernales, L., Gomez, J., and Riega, P., 2003, “Identification and Interpretation of Tsunami Deposits From the June 23, 2001 Perú Tsunami,” Proceedings of International Conference on Coastal Sediments, Orlando, FL, pp. 1–13.
Paris, R., Lavigne, F., Wassmer, P., and Sartohadi, J., 2007, “Coastal Sedimentation Associated With the December 26, 2004 Tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia),” Mar. Geol., 238(1), pp. 93–106.
Szczuciński, W., Kokociński, M., Rzeszewski, M., Chagué-Goff, C., Cachão, M., Goto, K., and Sugawara, D., 2012, “Sediment Sources and Sedimentation Processes of 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami Deposits on the Sendai Plain, Japan-Insights From Diatoms, Nannoliths and Grain Size Distribution,” Sediment. Geol., 282(1), pp. 40–56.
Tzang, S. Y., Chen, Y. L., and Ou, S. H., 2011, “Experimental Investigations on Developments of Velocity Field Near Above a Sandy Bed During Regular Wave-Induced Fluidized Responses,” Ocean Eng., 38(7), pp. 868–877.
Jiang, C., Wu, Z., Chen, J., Deng, B., Long, Y., and Li, L., 2017, “An Available Formula of the Sandy Beach State Induced by Plunging Waves,” Acta Oceanol. Sin., 36(9), pp. 91–100.
Kobayashi, N., and Wurjanto, A., 1992, “Irregular Wave Setup and Run-Up on Beaches,” J. Waterway Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng., 118(4), pp. 368–386.
Jacobsen, N. G., and Fredsoe, J., 2014, “Formation and Development of a Breaker Bar Under Regular Waves. Part 2: Sediment Transport and Morphology,” Coastal Eng., 88(3), pp. 55–68.
Dean, R. G., 1991, “Equilibrium Beach Profile: Characteristics and Application,” Coastal Res., 7(1), pp. 53–84.
Larson, M., Kraus, N. C., and Wise, R. A., 1999, “Equilibrium Beach Profiles Under Breaking and Non-Breaking Waves,” Coastal Eng., 36(1), pp. 59–85.
Sénéchal, N., Dupuis, H., Bonneton, P., Howa, H., and Pedreros, R., 2001, “Observation of Irregular Wave Transformation in the Surf Zone Over a Gently Sloping Sandy Beach on the French Atlantic Coastline,” Oceanol. Acta, 24(6), pp. 545–556.
Stark, N., “Pore Pressure Response to Irregular Waves at a Sandy Beach,” Geotechnical Frontiers 2017, March 12–15, 2017, Orlando, FL, pp. 409–417.
Lin, P., 2004, “A Numerical Study of Solitary Wave Interaction With Rectangular Obstacles,” Coastal Eng., 51(1), pp. 35–51.
Kobayashi, N., and Lawrence, A. R., 2004, “Cross-Shore Sediment Transport Under Breaking Solitary Waves,” J. Geophys. Res., 109(C3), pp. 1–13.
Moronkeji, A., and Rolla, O. H., “Physical Modelling of Tsunami Induced Sediment Transport and Scour,” Proceedings of the 2007 Earthquake Engineering Symposium for Young Researchers, Seattle, WA, 2007, pp. 8–12.
Tsujimoto, G., Kakinoki, T., and Yamada, F., 2008, “Time-Space Variation and Spectral Evolution of Sandy Beach Profiles Under Tsunami and Regular Waves,” The Eighteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 1–5.
Young, Y. L., Xiao, H., and Maddux, T., 2010, “Hydro- and Morpho-Dynamic Modeling of Breaking Solitary Waves Over a Fine Sand Beach. Part I: Experimental Study,” Mar. Geol., 269(3–4), pp. 107–118.
Jiang, C., Chen, J., Yao, Y., Liu, J., and Deng, Y., 2015, “Study on Threshold Motion of Sediment and Bedload Transport by Tsunami Waves,” Ocean Eng., 100(1), pp. 97–106.
Daghighi, N., Chegini, A. H. N., Daliri, M., and Hedayati, D., 2015, “Experimental Assessment of Sediment Transport and Bed Formation of Sandy Beaches by Tsunami Waves,” Int. J. Environ. Res., 9(3), pp. 795–804.
Simpson, G., and Castelltort, S., 2006, “Coupled Model of Surface Water Flow, Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution,” Comput. Geosci., 32(10), pp. 1600–1614.
Pritchard, D., and Dickinson, L., 2008, “Modelling the Sedimentary Signature of Long Waves on Coasts: Implications for Tsunami Reconstruction,” Sediment. Geol., 206(1), pp. 42–57.
Shimozono, T., Sato, S., and Tajima, Y., 2007, “Numerical Study of Tsunami Run-Up Over Erodible Sand Dunes,” Sixth International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Process, New Orleans, LA, pp. 1089–1102.
Xiao, H., Young, Y. L., and Prévost, J. H., 2010, “Hydro- and Morpho-Dynamic Modeling of Breaking Solitary Waves Over a Fine Sand Beach. Part II: Numerical Simulation,” Mar. Geol., 269(3), pp. 119–131.
Nakamura, T., and Yim, S. C., 2011, “A Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Coupled Fluid-Sediment Interaction Model for Large Seabed Deformation,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 133(3), p. 031103.
Jacobsen, N. G., Fuhrman, D. R., and Fredsøe, J., 2012, “A Wave Generation Toolbox for the Open-Source CFD Library: OpenFoam®,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 70(9), pp. 1073–1088.
Higuera, P., Lara, J. L., and Losada, I. J., 2013, “Realistic Wave Generation and Active Wave Absorption for Navier–Stokes Models: Application to OpenFOAM®,” Coastal Eng., 71(1), pp. 102–118.
Liang, D., Cheng, L., and Li, F., 2005, “Numerical Modeling of Flow and Scour Below a Pipeline in Currents: Part II. Scour Simulation,” Coastal Eng., 52(1), pp. 43–62.
Jacobsen, N. G., and Fredsøe, J., 2011, “A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby.
Jiang, C. B., Liu, X. J., Yao, Y., Deng, B., and Chen, J., 2017, “Numerical Investigation of Tsunami-Like Solitary Wave Interaction With a Seawall,” J. Earthq. Tsunami, 11(1), pp. 1–18.
Babaeyan-Koopaei, K., Ervine, D. A., Carling, P. A., and Cao, Z., 2002, “Velocity and Turbulence Measurements for Two Overbank Flow Events in River Severn,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 128(10), pp. 891–900.
Schlichting, H., 1979, Boundary-Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Zeng, J., Constantinescu, G., and Weber, L., 2005, “A Fully 3D Non-Hydrostatic Model for Prediction of Flow, Sediment Transport and Bed Morphology in Open Channels,” Proceedings of the 31st IAHR Congress, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1327–1338.
Galperin, B., Kantha, L. H., Hassid, S., and Rosati, A., 1988, “A Quasi-Equilibrium Turbulent Energy Model for Geophysical Flows,” J. Atmos. Sci., 45(1), pp. 55–62.
Arzani, A., Gambaruto, A. M., Chen, G., and Shadden, S. C., 2016, “Lagrangian Wall Shear Stress Structures and Near-Wall Transport in High-Schmidt-Number Aneurysmal Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 790(1), pp. 158–172.
Smith, J. D., and McLean, S. R., 1977, “Spatially Averaged Flow Over a Wavy Surface,” J. Geophys. Res., 82(12), pp. 1735–1746.
Rijn, L. C. V., 1985, “Sediment Transport, Part I: Bed Load Transport,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 110(10), pp. 1431–1456.
Soulsby, R. L., and Whitehouse, R. J. S. W., 1997, “Threshold of Sediment Motion in Coastal Environments,” Pacific Coasts and Ports 1997 Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 149–154.
Engelund, F., and Fredsøe, J., 1976, “A Sediment Transport Model for Straight Alluvial Channels,” Hydrol. Res., 7(5), pp. 293–306.
Allen, J. R. L., 1982, “Simple Models for the Shape and Symmetry of Tidal Sand Waves: (1) Statically Stable Equilibrium Forms,” Mar. Geol., 48(1), pp. 31–49.
Brørs, B., 1999, “Numerical Modeling of Flow and Scour at Pipelines,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 125(5), pp. 511–523.
Liu, X., and García, M. H., 2008, “Three-Dimensional Numerical Model With Free Water Surface and Mesh Deformation for Local Sediment Scour,” J. Waterway Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng., 134(4), pp. 203–217.
Richardson, J. F., and Zaki, W. N., 1997, “Sedimentation and Fluidisation: Part I,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 75(1), pp. 82–100.
Leveque, R. J., 2007, Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rijn, L. C., 1984, “Sediment Transport, Part II: Suspended Load Transport,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 110(11), pp. 1613–1641.
Jasak, H., and Tukovic, Z., 2006, “Automatic Mesh Motion for the Unstructured Finite Volume Method,” Trans. FAMENA, 30(2), pp. 1–20.
Khosronejad, A., Kang, S., Borazjani, I., and Sotiropoulos, F., 2011, “Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Coupled Flow and Bed Morphodynamic Interactions Due to Sediment Transport Phenomena,” Adv. Water Resour., 34(7), pp. 829–843.
Lee, J. J., Skjelbreia, J. E., and Raichlen, F., 1982, “Measurement of Velocities in Solitary Waves,” J. Waterway Port, Coastal, Ocean Div., 108(2), pp. 200–218.
Rijn, L. C., 1986, “Mathematical Modeling of Suspended Sediment in Nonuniform Flows,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 112(6), pp. 433–455.
Wu, W., Rodi, W., and Wenka, T., 2000, “3D Numerical Modeling of Flow and Sediment Transport in Open Channels,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 126(1), pp. 4–15.
Willmott, C. J., 1981, “On the Validation of Models,” Phys. Geogr., 2(2), pp. 184–194.
Synolakis, C. E., 1987, “The Runup of Solitary Waves,” J. Fluid Mech., 185(1), pp. 523–545.
Dean, R. G., and Dalrymple, R. A., 1991, “Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists,” Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering 2, World Scientific, Farrer Road.
Jacobsen, N. G., 2015, “Mass Conservation in Computational Morphodynamics: Uniform Sediment and Infinite Availability,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 78(4), pp. 233–256.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sandy beach profile: (a) before employing the sand slide model and (b) after employing the sand slide model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the entrainment experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of the predicted (solid lines) and measured (circles) sediment concentrations at four different locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Solitary wave transformation over a sandy slope: (a) runup and (b) drawdown

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for the beach profile change due to solitary waves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time series of the free surface elevations at the wave measurement locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The comparison of predicated results and measured data during the fourth wave for (a) beach profile, (b) beach profile change, and (c) time series of streamwise velocity (u) at the ADV location

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a)–(c) The 3D mesh deformation due to the beach profile change shown in the left panel, and the corresponding wave field and suspended load concentration shown in the right panel, during the solitary wave runup along the beach. (d)–(f) The 3D mesh deformation due to the beach profile change shown in the left panel, and the corresponding wave field and suspended load concentration shown in the right panel, during the solitary wave drawdown along the beach.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The beach morphological development for four different wave heights

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The beach morphological development for four different water depths

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The beach morphological development for four different beach slopes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Variations of wave breaking and hydraulic jump with wave height

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Variations of wave breaking and hydraulic jump with water depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Variations of wave breaking and hydraulic jump with beach slope

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The relationship between the equilibrium location and the wave breaking or the hydraulic jump

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Variations of dimensionless transported sediment volume (Vs/H2) with (a) wave height (H), (b) water depth (h), and (c) beach slope (m)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

(a) The computed dimensionless transported sediment volume (Vs/H2) versus the predicted Vs/H2 and (b) the predicted Vs/H2 versus the measured Vs/H2 from published references

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In