Research Papers: Ocean Engineering

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041101-041101-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039260.

In recent decades, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in many areas of engineering as a research and development tool has seen remarkable growth. Recently, an increasing concern with the assessment of the quality of CFD results has been observed. Wave modeling is an important task in many ocean engineering applications. Although numerical modeling studies of waves can be found in the literature for many applications, it is hard to find studies that present the numerical uncertainties of the results. In this study, the numerical uncertainties in mean wave parameters simulated using a viscous model were estimated using a procedure based on grid/time refinement studies and power series expansions. starccm+ software was used to simulate wave propagation. The computational domain was discretized using a trimmer mesh. The results obtained for a regular wave with a wave steepness (H/L) equal to 0.025 are presented. The numerical uncertainties in mean wave height and mean wave period were estimated along the computational domain. The results indicate that the convergence properties of the mean wave parameters with the grid refinement depended on both position in the domain and the selected wave parameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041102-041102-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039263.

The measurement of the directional wave spectrum in oceans has been done by different approaches, mainly wave-buoys, satellite imagery and radar technologies; these methods, however, present some inherent drawbacks, e.g., difficult maintenance, low resolution around areas of interest and high cost. In order to overcome those problems, recent works proposed a motion-based estimation procedure using the vessel as a wave sensor; nevertheless, this strategy suffers from low-estimation capabilities of the spectral energy coming from periods lower than the cutoff period of the systems, which are important for the drift effect predictions. This work studies the usage of wave-probes installed on the hull of a moored vessel to enhance the estimation capabilities of the motion-based strategy, using a high-order estimation method based on Bayesian statistics. First, the measurements from the wave-probes are incorporated to the dynamic system of the vessel as new degrees-of-freedom (DOF); thus, the Bayesian method can be expanded without additional reasoning. Second, the proposal is validated by experiments conducted in a wave-basin with a scale model, concluding that the approach is able to improve not only the estimation of spectra with low peak period but also the estimation in the entire range of expected spectra. Finally, some drawbacks are discussed, as the effect of the nonlinear roll motion, which must be taken in account when calculating the wave-probe response; and the poor mean-direction estimation capability in some particular wave directions and low peak periods.

Topics: Waves , Probes , Vessels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Ocean Space Utilization

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041201-041201-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039131.

The aquaculture industry is aiming to move fish farms from nearshore areas to open seas because of many attractive advantages in the open water. However, one major challenge is to design the structure to withstand the environmental loads due to wind, waves, and currents. The purpose of this paper is to study a vessel-shaped fish farm concept for open sea applications. The structure includes a vessel-shaped hull, a mooring system, and fish cages. The shape of the hull minimizes the wave loads coming from the bow, and the single-point mooring system is connected to the turret at the vessel bow. Such a system allows the whole fish farm to rotate freely about the turret, reduces the environmental loads on the structure and increases the spread area of fish wastes. A basic geometry of the vessel hull was considered and the hydrodynamic properties were obtained from the frequency-domain (FD) analysis. A mooring system with six mooring lines was designed to avoid possible interactions with the fish cages. Time-domain (TD) simulations were performed by coupling the hull with the mooring system. A simplified rigid model of the fish cages was considered. The global responses of the system and the mooring line loads were compared under various wave and current conditions. The effects due to misalignment of wave and current directions on the responses were discussed. Finally, the responses using flexible and rigid net models were compared under steady current conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Offshore Technology

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041301-041301-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039160.

In hydroelastic model tests, segmented ship models are usually used to make sure that the model scale and the full size ship satisfy the similarity law of structural natural frequency and distribution of ship bending stiffness. However, springing barely occurs in those tests because the natural frequency of segmented ship models is too high for the regular waves required to be generated in a tank. In order to investigate the springing effect, three sets of backbone of variable cross section are adopted in the test. One set of backbones satisfies the similarity law of natural frequency, and two extra sets of low stiffness backbones are used so that the springing effect can appear and be measured. Experimental results show that the springing occurs when the wave encounter frequency coincides with the first elastic natural frequency of the ship, or with half or one-third of it. A good agreement has also been obtained between the experimental and the numerical results by a three-dimensional (3D) hydroelasticity method. Based on these results, the contribution of the springing responses to the fatigue damage of the ship is estimated and analyzed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041302-041302-5. doi:10.1115/1.4039372.

Up to now, the postconsolidation bearing capacity enhancement of jack-up spudcan foundation has been explored using centrifuge model tests and numerical analyses, which however ignored the realistic jack-up lattice leg. This paper investigates both typical lattice leg and sleeve effects on the postconsolidation spudcan bearing capacity using centrifuge model tests, by replicating the entire process of spudcan in normally consolidated clay: “penetration–unloading–consolidation–repenetration.” The experimental results show that the lattice leg and sleeve affect the spudcan bearing capacity in two sides compared with spudcan without leg. First, it increases the transient bearing capacity during initial spudcan penetration; second, less postconsolidation bearing capacity improvement is yielded by the presence of the leg. The former effect is of importance on the prediction of jack-up leg penetration, and the latter effect would suggest a lower risk of spudcan punch-through for realistic offshore jack-up rig during preloading and operation period.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041303-041303-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039262.

This paper presents the substructure-based dynamic analysis of an offshore platform with compressor packages. Three typical substructure methods, the Guyan condensation method, the fixed-interface component mode synthesis (CMS) method and the free-interface CMS method, were compared to identify the appropriate substructure method for this application. A mode truncation criterion was proposed to ensure the accuracy of the recommended substructure method. The results indicated that the free-interface CMS method could generate almost the same results as the fully coupled method and save more than 50% in calculation time and more than 60% in storage space. When the same amount of time was used, the free-interface CMS method obtained more accurate results than the fixed-interface CMS method and Guyan condensation method; thus, the use of this method for evaluating the dynamics of an offshore platform with compressor packages was recommended. The cutoff frequency of the substructure was suggested to be 1.25 times the highest frequency of interest when conducting a dynamic analysis of an offshore platform with compressor packages using the free-interface CMS method. In addition, the offshore platform is a flexible structure with low and dense mechanical natural frequencies (MNFs), with approximately 4500 orders vibration modes in the frequency range of 0–40 Hz, and the displacement response at the area around the compressor package exceeded the allowable value under the excitation of the compressor package.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041304-041304-9. doi:10.1115/1.4039565.

The study presents a one-dimensional (1D) numerical model of wave propagation as well as transmission/reflection phenomena in Newtonian and non-Newtonian drilling mud flow associated with oil/gas drilling activities. Propagation of wave formed due to back pressure changes by means of a choke is investigated. In general, the reflection and transmission of pressure waves at intersection of conduits with different cross sections or in case of partial blockage typical of drilling practices is multidimensional and caused by nonuniform boundary conditions over the cross section. The 1D approach is investigated to approximate the multidimensional reflection and transmission of pressure pulse at areal discontinuity in conduit. The approach is facilitated by introduction of a local force exerted by solid wall on the fluid at the intersection of the conduits into conservative form of the equation for momentum conservation. In addition, nonconservative formulation of momentum equation was explored. To solve the differential equations, MacCormack numerical scheme with second-order accuracy is applied to the nonlinear Euler and 1D viscous conservation equations. A grid refinement study is performed. It is shown that nonconservative form of the conservation laws results in more accurate prediction of transmission and reflection in case of areal discontinuity. The results of the numerical modeling are presented in terms of pressure wave propagation and attenuation upon reflection and transmission at consequent interfaces.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041305-041305-7. doi:10.1115/1.4039564.

This paper presents a generic Monte Carlo-based approach for bivariate extreme response prediction for fixed offshore structures, particularly jacket type. The bivariate analysis of extremes is often poorly understood and generally not adequately considered in most practical measurements/situations; that is why it is important to utilize the recently developed bivariate average conditional exceedance rate (ACER) method. According to the current literature study, there is not yet a direct application of the bivariate ACER method to coupled offshore jacket stresses. This study aims at being first to apply bivariate ACER method to jacket critical stresses, aiming at contributing to safety and reliability studies for a wide class of fixed offshore structures. An operating jacket located in the Bohai bay was taken as an example to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Satellite measured global wave statistics was used to obtain realistic wave scatter diagram in the jacket location area. Second-order wave load effects were taken into account, while simulating jacket structural response. An accurate finite element ANSYS model was used to model jacket response dynamics, subject to nonlinear hydrodynamic wave and sea current loads. Offshore structure design values are often based on univariate statistical analysis, while actually multivariate statistics is more appropriate for modeling the whole structure. This paper studies extreme stresses that are simultaneously measured/simulated at two different jacket locations. Due to less than full correlation between stresses in different critical jacket locations, application of the multivariate (or at least bivariate) extreme value theory is of practical engineering interest.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Materials Technology

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041401-041401-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038585.

Evaluation of the nonlinear structural response of any structure is a challenging task; a range of input parameters are needed, most of which have significant statistical variability and the evaluations require a high degree of craftsmanship. Hence, high demands are set forth both to the analyst and the body in charge of verification of the results. Recent efforts by DNVGL attempt to mitigate this with the second edition of the DNVGL-RP-C208 for the determination of nonlinear structural response, in which guidance or requirements are given on many of the challenging aspects. This paper discusses the various challenges and the direction to which the RP-C208 points compared to published research. Parameters affecting the plastic hardening, strain-rate effects, and ductile fracture are discussed separately. Then, the combined effect of the range of assumptions is evaluated to assess the resulting level of safety.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041402-041402-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039132.

Composite flexible pipe is used in the offshore oil and gas industry for the transport of hydrocarbons, jumpers connecting subsea infrastructure, and risers with surface platforms and facilities. Although the material fabrication costs are high, there are technical advantages with respect to installation and performance envelope (e.g., fatigue). Flexible pipe has a complex, composite section with each layer addressing a specific function (e.g., pressure containment, and axial load). Continuum finite element modeling (FEM) procedures are developed to examine the mechanical response of an unbonded flexible pipe subject to axisymmetric loading conditions. A parameter study examined the effects of: (1) pure torsion, (2) interlayer friction factor, (3) axial tension, and (4) external and internal pressure on the pipe mechanical response. The results demonstrated a coupled global-local mechanism with a bifurcation path for positive angles of twist relative to the tensile armor wire pitch angle. These results indicated that idealized analytical- and structural-based numerical models may be incomplete or may provide an accurate prediction of the pipe mechanical response. The importance of using an implicit solver to predict the bifurcation response and simulate contact mechanics between layers was highlighted.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041403-041403-15. doi:10.1115/1.4039719.

In this study, a computational fluid dynamics model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method is developed to simulate the dynamic sloshing response to external excitations. The modal analysis model based on the linear potential theory is established to predict natural sloshing frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes in three-phase separators. In addition, the effects of separator location, length-to-diameter ratio, oil/water level, porosity, and spacing of perforated baffles on the sloshing response are evaluated quantitatively. Furthermore, comprehensive approaches are proposed to mitigate the sloshing, like enhancing viscous damping effect, reducing the intensity of external excitation sources, and keeping away from the resonant frequencies. Finally, a practical application is carried out to display the optimal design of a three-phase separator. The results show that three-phase separators should be located as close as possible to the center of rotation (COR) of the floating production units (FPU). The length-to-diameter ratio is recommended to be no greater than three. Once the fluids can be separated to reach their respective interfaces, the liquid level should be increased as high as possible, whereas the water level should be lowered as far as possible. There is an almost inversely linear relationship between the antisloshing performance of a perforated baffle and its porosity. The antisloshing performance is attenuated rapidly when the spacing distance of a pair of baffles exceeds a specific range. This research extends the existing scope of sloshing suppression approaches and provides useful guidance in the design of FPU-based three-phase separators.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: CFD and VIV

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041801-041801-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038936.

Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) of two elastically mounted circular cylinders in staggered arrangement were experimentally investigated. The Reynolds number range for all experiments (2.5 × 104 < Re < 1.2 × 105) was in the transition in shear layer 3 (TrSL3) flow regime. The oscillator parameters selected were: mass ratio m* = 1.343 (ratio of oscillating mass to displaced fluid mass), spring stiffness K = 250 N/m, and damping ratio ζ = 0.02. The experiments were conducted in the low turbulence free surface water (LTFSW) channel in the MRELab of the University of Michigan. A closed-loop, virtual spring–damper system (Vck) was used to facilitate quick and accurate parameter setting. Based on the characteristics of the displacement response, five vibration patterns were identified and their corresponding regions in the parametric plane of the in-flow spacing (1.57 < L/D < 4.57) and transverse cylinder spacing (0 < T/D < 2) were defined. The hydrodynamic forces and frequency characteristics of the vibration response are also discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Ocean Renewable Energy

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):041901-041901-17. doi:10.1115/1.4038584.

Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) of two tandem, rigid, circular cylinders with piecewise continuous restoring force are investigated for Reynolds number 24,000 ≤ Re ≤ 120,000 with damping, and restoring force function as parameters. Selective roughness is applied to enhance FIV and increase the hydrokinetic energy captured by the vortex-induced vibration for aquatic clean energy (VIVACE) converter. Experimental results for amplitude response, frequency response, interactions between cylinders, energy harvesting, and efficiency are presented and discussed. All experiments were conducted in the low-turbulence free-surface water (LTFSW) Channel of the MRELab of the University of Michigan. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the nonlinear-spring converter can harness energy from flows as slow as 0.33 m/s with no upper limit; (2) the nonlinear-spring converter has better performance at initial galloping than its linear-spring counterpart; (3) the FIV response is predominantly periodic for all nonlinear spring functions used; (4) the influence from the upstream cylinder is becoming more dominant as damping increases; (5) optimal power harnessing is achieved by changing the linear viscous damping and tandem spacing L/D; (6) close spacing ratio L/D = 1.57 has a positive impact on the harnessed power in VIV to galloping transition; and (7) the interactions between two cylinders have a positive impact on the upstream cylinder regardless of the spacing and harness damping.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Offshore Geotechnics

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):042001-042001-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039297.

This paper presents an engineering approach to study the effects of soil profile variation and scour on structural response of an offshore monopile wind turbine. A wind-wave model for finite water depth is proposed to obtain the corresponding sea-state based on the incident wind. Different wind, wave, and current loads on the wind turbine for the operational conditions are considered. The interaction between the foundation and the soil is simulated by nonlinear springs, for which stiffness properties are obtained from the axial load transfer curve, the tip load–displacement curve, and the lateral load–deflection curve. Four types of soil conditions are considered, i.e., 100% sand layer, 50% sand layer (top) and 50% clay layer (bottom), 50% clay layer (top), and 50% sand layer (bottom), as well as 100% clay layer. For a given current speed, the variations of the structural response of the wind turbine due to the effects of different wind–wave load combinations, soil conditions and scour have been investigated. Different wind–wave load combinations directly affect the mean internal bending moment and mean displacement vertically along the support structure. Different soil conditions change the eigenfrequency of the structure significantly. The top layer of the soil appears to have a strong influence on the mean internal bending moment and the mean shear force distribution along the foundation. Moreover, the effect of scour alters the eigenfrequency of the structure significantly. The maximum mean bending moment and displacement increase for the cases with a scour hole as compared to the cases with scour protection.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):042002-042002-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039522.

A modified anisotropic bounding surface model is developed to simulate the stress–strain response of saturated clay under cyclic loading. In this study, kinematic hardening variables are introduced into the equation for a rotational bounding surface, and an anisotropic bounding surface equation is established by strict mathematical derivation from the isotropic and kinematic hardening rules. To characterize the cyclic degeneration behavior of soil stiffness, the accumulated deviatoric plastic strain is incorporated into the plastic modulus interpolation function. This modified model is then validated by comparison to results of undrained cyclic triaxial tests of isotropic and anisotropic consolidated clay samples from the literature. The results show that the performance of the modified model is an improvement over the original model for simulating the hysteresis, accumulation, and cyclic degeneration of stress–strain response.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief: Technical Briefs

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. 2018;140(4):044501-044501-5. doi:10.1115/1.4038732.

This paper proposes a simple effective stress method for modeling the strain rate-dependent strength behavior that is experienced by many fine-grained soils in offshore events when subjected to rapid, large strain, undrained shearing. The approach is based on correlating the size of the modified Cam-Clay yield locus with strain rate, i.e., yield locus enlarging or diminishing dependent on the strain rate. A viscometer-based method for evaluating the needed parameters for this approach is provided. The viscometer measurements showed that strain rate parameters are largely independent of water content and agree closely with data from a previous study. Numerical analysis of the annular simple shear situation induced by the viscometer shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data provided the remolding-induced strength degradation effect is accounted for. The proposed method allows offshore foundation installation processes such as dynamically installed offshore anchors, free-falling penetrometer, and submarine landslides to be more realistically analyzed through effective stress calculations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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