Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Newest Issue
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org
en-usWed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTWed, 14 Mar 2018 13:43:45 GMTSilverchaireditor@offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.orgwebmaster@offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.orgBayesian Estimation of Directional Wave-Spectrum Using Vessel Motions and Wave-Probes: Proposal and Preliminary Experimental Validation
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672776
Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTde Souza F, Tannuri E, de Mello P, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">The measurement of the directional wave spectrum in oceans has been done by different approaches, mainly wave-buoys, satellite imagery and radar technologies; these methods, however, present some inherent drawbacks, e.g., difficult maintenance, low resolution around areas of interest and high cost. In order to overcome those problems, recent works proposed a motion-based estimation procedure using the vessel as a wave sensor; nevertheless, this strategy suffers from low-estimation capabilities of the spectral energy coming from periods lower than the cutoff period of the systems, which are important for the drift effect predictions. This work studies the usage of wave-probes installed on the hull of a moored vessel to enhance the estimation capabilities of the motion-based strategy, using a high-order estimation method based on Bayesian statistics. First, the measurements from the wave-probes are incorporated to the dynamic system of the vessel as new degrees-of-freedom (DOF); thus, the Bayesian method can be expanded without additional reasoning. Second, the proposal is validated by experiments conducted in a wave-basin with a scale model, concluding that the approach is able to improve not only the estimation of spectra with low peak period but also the estimation in the entire range of expected spectra. Finally, some drawbacks are discussed, as the effect of the nonlinear roll motion, which must be taken in account when calculating the wave-probe response; and the poor mean-direction estimation capability in some particular wave directions and low peak periods.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672776Centrifuge Model Study on the Effect of Lattice Leg and Sleeve on the Postconsolidation Bearing Capacity of Spudcan Foundation
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2673316
Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTLi Y, Yi J, Lee F. <span class="paragraphSection">Up to now, the postconsolidation bearing capacity enhancement of jack-up spudcan foundation has been explored using centrifuge model tests and numerical analyses, which however ignored the realistic jack-up lattice leg. This paper investigates both typical lattice leg and sleeve effects on the postconsolidation spudcan bearing capacity using centrifuge model tests, by replicating the entire process of spudcan in normally consolidated clay: “penetration–unloading–consolidation–repenetration.” The experimental results show that the lattice leg and sleeve affect the spudcan bearing capacity in two sides compared with spudcan without leg. First, it increases the transient bearing capacity during initial spudcan penetration; second, less postconsolidation bearing capacity improvement is yielded by the presence of the leg. The former effect is of importance on the prediction of jack-up leg penetration, and the latter effect would suggest a lower risk of spudcan punch-through for realistic offshore jack-up rig during preloading and operation period.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2673316Dynamic Analysis of an Offshore Platform With Compressor Packages—Application of the Substructure Method
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672696
Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTZhao Y, Jia X, Zhang Y, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">This paper presents the substructure-based dynamic analysis of an offshore platform with compressor packages. Three typical substructure methods, the Guyan condensation method, the fixed-interface component mode synthesis (CMS) method and the free-interface CMS method, were compared to identify the appropriate substructure method for this application. A mode truncation criterion was proposed to ensure the accuracy of the recommended substructure method. The results indicated that the free-interface CMS method could generate almost the same results as the fully coupled method and save more than 50% in calculation time and more than 60% in storage space. When the same amount of time was used, the free-interface CMS method obtained more accurate results than the fixed-interface CMS method and Guyan condensation method; thus, the use of this method for evaluating the dynamics of an offshore platform with compressor packages was recommended. The cutoff frequency of the substructure was suggested to be 1.25 times the highest frequency of interest when conducting a dynamic analysis of an offshore platform with compressor packages using the free-interface CMS method. In addition, the offshore platform is a flexible structure with low and dense mechanical natural frequencies (MNFs), with approximately 4500 orders vibration modes in the frequency range of 0–40 Hz, and the displacement response at the area around the compressor package exceeded the allowable value under the excitation of the compressor package.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672696Effects of Soil Profile Variation and Scour on Structural Response of an Offshore Monopile Wind Turbine
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672851
Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTLi H, Ong M, Leira B, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">This paper presents an engineering approach to study the effects of soil profile variation and scour on structural response of an offshore monopile wind turbine. A wind-wave model for finite water depth is proposed to obtain the corresponding sea-state based on the incident wind. Different wind, wave, and current loads on the wind turbine for the operational conditions are considered. The interaction between the foundation and the soil is simulated by nonlinear springs, for which stiffness properties are obtained from the axial load transfer curve, the tip load–displacement curve, and the lateral load–deflection curve. Four types of soil conditions are considered, i.e., 100% sand layer, 50% sand layer (top) and 50% clay layer (bottom), 50% clay layer (top), and 50% sand layer (bottom), as well as 100% clay layer. For a given current speed, the variations of the structural response of the wind turbine due to the effects of different wind–wave load combinations, soil conditions and scour have been investigated. Different wind–wave load combinations directly affect the mean internal bending moment and mean displacement vertically along the support structure. Different soil conditions change the eigenfrequency of the structure significantly. The top layer of the soil appears to have a strong influence on the mean internal bending moment and the mean shear force distribution along the foundation. Moreover, the effect of scour alters the eigenfrequency of the structure significantly. The maximum mean bending moment and displacement increase for the cases with a scour hole as compared to the cases with scour protection.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672851Springing Responses Analysis and Segmented Model Test on a 550,000 Dead Weight Tonnage Ore Carrier
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671746
Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTLi H, Wang D, Zhou C, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">In hydroelastic model tests, segmented ship models are usually used to make sure that the model scale and the full size ship satisfy the similarity law of structural natural frequency and distribution of ship bending stiffness. However, springing barely occurs in those tests because the natural frequency of segmented ship models is too high for the regular waves required to be generated in a tank. In order to investigate the springing effect, three sets of backbone of variable cross section are adopted in the test. One set of backbones satisfies the similarity law of natural frequency, and two extra sets of low stiffness backbones are used so that the springing effect can appear and be measured. Experimental results show that the springing occurs when the wave encounter frequency coincides with the first elastic natural frequency of the ship, or with half or one-third of it. A good agreement has also been obtained between the experimental and the numerical results by a three-dimensional (3D) hydroelasticity method. Based on these results, the contribution of the springing responses to the fatigue damage of the ship is estimated and analyzed.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671746Finite Element Investigation on the Tensile Armor Wire Response of Flexible Pipe for Axisymmetric Loading Conditions Using an Implicit Solver
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671235
Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMTEbrahimi A, Kenny S, Hussein A. <span class="paragraphSection">Composite flexible pipe is used in the offshore oil and gas industry for the transport of hydrocarbons, jumpers connecting subsea infrastructure, and risers with surface platforms and facilities. Although the material fabrication costs are high, there are technical advantages with respect to installation and performance envelope (e.g., fatigue). Flexible pipe has a complex, composite section with each layer addressing a specific function (e.g., pressure containment, and axial load). Continuum finite element modeling (FEM) procedures are developed to examine the mechanical response of an unbonded flexible pipe subject to axisymmetric loading conditions. A parameter study examined the effects of: (1) pure torsion, (2) interlayer friction factor, (3) axial tension, and (4) external and internal pressure on the pipe mechanical response. The results demonstrated a coupled global-local mechanism with a bifurcation path for positive angles of twist relative to the tensile armor wire pitch angle. These results indicated that idealized analytical- and structural-based numerical models may be incomplete or may provide an accurate prediction of the pipe mechanical response. The importance of using an implicit solver to predict the bifurcation response and simulate contact mechanics between layers was highlighted.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671235Numerical Analysis of a Vessel-Shaped Offshore Fish Farm
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671236
Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMTLi L, Jiang Z, Vangdal Høiland A, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">The aquaculture industry is aiming to move fish farms from nearshore areas to open seas because of many attractive advantages in the open water. However, one major challenge is to design the structure to withstand the environmental loads due to wind, waves, and currents. The purpose of this paper is to study a vessel-shaped fish farm concept for open sea applications. The structure includes a vessel-shaped hull, a mooring system, and fish cages. The shape of the hull minimizes the wave loads coming from the bow, and the single-point mooring system is connected to the turret at the vessel bow. Such a system allows the whole fish farm to rotate freely about the turret, reduces the environmental loads on the structure and increases the spread area of fish wastes. A basic geometry of the vessel hull was considered and the hydrodynamic properties were obtained from the frequency-domain (FD) analysis. A mooring system with six mooring lines was designed to avoid possible interactions with the fish cages. Time-domain (TD) simulations were performed by coupling the hull with the mooring system. A simplified rigid model of the fish cages was considered. The global responses of the system and the mooring line loads were compared under various wave and current conditions. The effects due to misalignment of wave and current directions on the responses were discussed. Finally, the responses using flexible and rigid net models were compared under steady current conditions.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2671236Numerical Uncertainty Analysis in Regular Wave Modeling
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672697
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMTSilva MC, Vitola MA, Eça L, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">In recent decades, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in many areas of engineering as a research and development tool has seen remarkable growth. Recently, an increasing concern with the assessment of the quality of CFD results has been observed. Wave modeling is an important task in many ocean engineering applications. Although numerical modeling studies of waves can be found in the literature for many applications, it is hard to find studies that present the numerical uncertainties of the results. In this study, the numerical uncertainties in mean wave parameters simulated using a viscous model were estimated using a procedure based on grid/time refinement studies and power series expansions. <span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">starccm+</span> software was used to simulate wave propagation. The computational domain was discretized using a trimmer mesh. The results obtained for a regular wave with a wave steepness (<span style="font-style:italic;">H</span>/<span style="font-style:italic;">L</span>) equal to 0.025 are presented. The numerical uncertainties in mean wave height and mean wave period were estimated along the computational domain. The results indicate that the convergence properties of the mean wave parameters with the grid refinement depended on both position in the domain and the selected wave parameter.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2672697Interactive Flow-Induced Vibrations of Two Staggered, Low Mass-Ratio Cylinders in the TrSL3 Flow Regime (2.5 × 10 4 < Re < 1.2 × 10 5 ): Smooth Cylinders
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2669962
Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMTJi C, Xu W, Sun H, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) of two elastically mounted circular cylinders in staggered arrangement were experimentally investigated. The Reynolds number range for all experiments (2.5 × 10<sup>4</sup> < Re < 1.2 × 10<sup>5</sup>) was in the transition in shear layer 3 (TrSL3) flow regime. The oscillator parameters selected were: mass ratio m* = 1.343 (ratio of oscillating mass to displaced fluid mass), spring stiffness K = 250 N/m, and damping ratio <span style="font-style:italic;">ζ</span> = 0.02. The experiments were conducted in the low turbulence free surface water (LTFSW) channel in the MRELab of the University of Michigan. A closed-loop, virtual spring–damper system (V<sub>ck</sub>) was used to facilitate quick and accurate parameter setting. Based on the characteristics of the displacement response, five vibration patterns were identified and their corresponding regions in the parametric plane of the in-flow spacing (1.57 < L/D < 4.57) and transverse cylinder spacing (0 < T/D < 2) were defined. The hydrodynamic forces and frequency characteristics of the vibration response are also discussed.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2669962Evaluation of Nonlinear Material Behavior for Offshore Structures Subjected to Accidental Actions
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664773
Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMTStorheim M, Alsos HS, Amdahl J. <span class="paragraphSection">Evaluation of the nonlinear structural response of any structure is a challenging task; a range of input parameters are needed, most of which have significant statistical variability and the evaluations require a high degree of craftsmanship. Hence, high demands are set forth both to the analyst and the body in charge of verification of the results. Recent efforts by DNVGL attempt to mitigate this with the second edition of the DNVGL-RP-C208 for the determination of nonlinear structural response, in which guidance or requirements are given on many of the challenging aspects. This paper discusses the various challenges and the direction to which the RP-C208 points compared to published research. Parameters affecting the plastic hardening, strain-rate effects, and ductile fracture are discussed separately. Then, the combined effect of the range of assumptions is evaluated to assess the resulting level of safety.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664773Nonlinear Piecewise Restoring Force in Hydrokinetic Power Conversion Using Flow-Induced Vibrations of Two Tandem Cylinders
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664772
Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMTMa C, Sun H, Bernitsas MM. <span class="paragraphSection">Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) of two tandem, rigid, circular cylinders with piecewise continuous restoring force are investigated for Reynolds number 24,000 ≤ Re ≤ 120,000 with damping, and restoring force function as parameters. Selective roughness is applied to enhance FIV and increase the hydrokinetic energy captured by the vortex-induced vibration for aquatic clean energy (VIVACE) converter. Experimental results for amplitude response, frequency response, interactions between cylinders, energy harvesting, and efficiency are presented and discussed. All experiments were conducted in the low-turbulence free-surface water (LTFSW) Channel of the MRELab of the University of Michigan. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the nonlinear-spring converter can harness energy from flows as slow as 0.33 m/s with no upper limit; (2) the nonlinear-spring converter has better performance at initial galloping than its linear-spring counterpart; (3) the FIV response is predominantly periodic for all nonlinear spring functions used; (4) the influence from the upstream cylinder is becoming more dominant as damping increases; (5) optimal power harnessing is achieved by changing the linear viscous damping and tandem spacing L/D; (6) close spacing ratio L/D = 1.57 has a positive impact on the harnessed power in VIV to galloping transition; and (7) the interactions between two cylinders have a positive impact on the upstream cylinder regardless of the spacing and harness damping.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2664772A Simple Effective Stress Approach for Modeling Rate-Dependent Strength of Soft Clay
http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2666729
Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMTYi J, Li Y, Bai S, et al. <span class="paragraphSection">This paper proposes a simple effective stress method for modeling the strain rate-dependent strength behavior that is experienced by many fine-grained soils in offshore events when subjected to rapid, large strain, undrained shearing. The approach is based on correlating the size of the modified Cam-Clay yield locus with strain rate, i.e., yield locus enlarging or diminishing dependent on the strain rate. A viscometer-based method for evaluating the needed parameters for this approach is provided. The viscometer measurements showed that strain rate parameters are largely independent of water content and agree closely with data from a previous study. Numerical analysis of the annular simple shear situation induced by the viscometer shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data provided the remolding-induced strength degradation effect is accounted for. The proposed method allows offshore foundation installation processes such as dynamically installed offshore anchors, free-falling penetrometer, and submarine landslides to be more realistically analyzed through effective stress calculations.</span>http://offshoremechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2666729