Linear cascade measurements for the aerodynamic performance of a family of three transonic, high-pressure (HP) turbine blades have been presented previously by the authors. The airfoils were designed for the same inlet and outlet velocity triangles but varied in their loading distributions. The previous papers presented results for the design incidence at various exit Mach numbers, and for off-design incidence at the design exit Mach number of 1.05. Results from the earlier studies indicated that by shifting the loading towards the rear of the airfoil an improvement in the profile loss performance of the order of 20% could be obtained near the design Mach number at design incidence. Measurements performed at off-design incidence, but still at the design Mach number, showed that the superior performance of the aft-loaded blade extended over a range of incidence from about −5.0° to +5.0° relative to the design value. For the current study, additional measurements were performed at off-design Mach numbers from about 0.5 to 1.3 and for incidence values of −10.0°, +5.0° and + 10.0° relative to design. The corresponding Reynolds numbers, based on outlet velocity and true chord, varied from roughly 4 × 105 to 10 × 105. The measurements included midspan losses, blade loading distributions and base pressures. In addition, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations of the flow were performed to help in the interpretation of the experimental results. The results show that the superior loss performance of the aft-loaded profile, observed at design Mach number and low values of off-design incidence, does not extend readily to off-design Mach numbers and larger values of incidence. In fact, the measured midspan loss performance for the aft-loaded blade was found to be inferior to, or at best equal to, that of the baseline, mid-loaded airfoil at most combinations of off-design Mach number and incidence. However, based on the observations made at design and off-design flow conditions, it appears that aft-loading can be a viable design philosophy to employ in order to reduce the losses within a blade row provided the rearward deceleration is carefully limited. The loss performance of the front-loaded blade is inferior or at best equal to that of the other two blades for all operating conditions. As such, it appears that there is no advantage to front loading the airfoil for transonic high-pressure turbine blades. The results also provide a significant addition to the data available in the open literature on the off-design performance of transonic HP turbine airfoils.
Influence of Loading Distribution on the Off-Design Performance of High-Pressure Turbine Blades
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Corriveau, D, & Sjolander, SA. "Influence of Loading Distribution on the Off-Design Performance of High-Pressure Turbine Blades." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea, and Air. Volume 6: Turbomachinery, Parts A and B. Barcelona, Spain. May 8–11, 2006. pp. 809-820. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2006-90849
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