In contrast to external flow aerodynamics, where one-dimensional Riemann boundary conditions can be applied far up- and downstream, the handling of non-reflecting boundary conditions for turbomachinery applications poses a greater challenge due to small axial gaps normally encountered. For boundaries exposed to non-uniform flow in the vicinity of blade rows, the quality of the simulation is greatly influenced by the underlying non-reflecting boundary condition and its implementation. This paper deals with the adaptation of Giles’ well-known exact non-local boundary conditions for two-dimensional steady flows to a cell-centered solver specifically developed for turbomachinery applications. It is shown that directly applying the theory originally formulated for a cell-vertex scheme to a cell-centered solver may yield an ill-posed problem due to the necessity of having to reconstruct boundary face values before actually applying the exact non-reflecting theory.
In order to ensure well-posedness, Giles’ original approach is adapted for cell-centered schemes with a physically motivated reconstruction of the boundary face values, while still maintaining the non-reflecting boundary conditions. The extension is formulated within the original framework of determining the circumferential distribution of one-dimensional characteristics on the boundary. It is shown that, due to approximations in the one-dimensional characteristic reconstruction of boundary face values, the new approach can only be exact in the limiting case of cells with a vanishing width in the direction normal to the boundary if a one-dimensional characteristic reconstruction of boundary face values is used. To overcome the dependency on the width of the last cell, the new boundary condition is expressed explicitly in terms of a two-dimensional modal decomposition of the flow field. In this formulation, vanishing modal amplitudes for all incoming two-dimensional modes can easily be accomplished for a converged solution. Hence we are able to ensure perfectly non-reflecting boundary conditions under the same conditions as the original approach. The improvements of the new method are demonstrated for both a subsonic turbine and a transonic compressor test case.