Regulatory pressure has been increasing globally to address the issue of climate change. In particular, there are plans to reduce the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) based working fluids across many applications, as HFCs are forecast to be significant contributors to global warming in the future. Therefore, there is a need to find low global warming potential (GWP) fluids suitable for organic rankine cycles (ORCs) in those systems where HFCs have historically been preferred. These are usually systems that require a non-flammable working fluid. A new ORC working fluid, cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene, also called DR-2 (cis-CF3CH=CHCF3) has been developed which is nonflammable with very low GWP of 8.9 and an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero because it contains no chlorine or other halogen atoms other than fluorine. DR-2 also has a favorable toxicity profile based on testing to date. DR-2 is thermally stable in the presence of lubricant and metals, air and oxygen up to the maximum temperature tested of 250°C. DR-2 has a boiling point of 33.4°C and a relatively high critical temperature of 171.3°C, which result in relatively low vapor pressures and high cycle energy efficiencies. It can enable more environmentally sustainable ORC platforms to generate electrical power from widely available heat at higher temperatures and with higher energy efficiencies than incumbent working fluids.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.