This paper presents a theoretical study of the heat transfer during particles colliding with a surface considering the material elastoplastic properties and adhesion forces of particles. The model divides the impact processes into three stages, the elastic stage, the elastic-plastic stage, and full plastic stage, and assumes that the recovery stage is fully elastic. The rebound velocities of particles are obtained by the comparison of initial kinetic energy and total energy losses, and the major loss mechanisms in the form of adhesion forces and plastic deformation of particles. During each stage of the collision, the impact duration of collision is predicted numerically by integrating the differential equations of contact forces and particle motion. Elastic impact duration and heat transfer of a 4.76 mm stainless steel particle with 304 stainless steel surface agrees well with a previous analytical model. The result shows that at higher impact velocity, a larger percentage of time is spent in the compression stage. Sand particles under 50 μm impacting a nickel based super alloy surface (DD3) from room temperature to 1273 K are evaluated. Time duration decreases with an increase in impact velocity and a decrease in particle size. Heat transfer at particle impact is determined primarily by the contact area and time duration, besides the temperature difference and thermal conductivity. Heat transfer of plastic impact is noticeably smaller than the Sun and Chen’s analytical model, and the difference increases with increase in impact velocity. Adhesion forces affect the time duration significantly at low impact velocity. Heat transfer for 20 μm sand particles at 1073 K, 1173 K and 1273 K is about 1.12, 1.15 and 1.25 times that at room temperature, and about 1.07, 1.08 and 1.15 times the impact duration at room temperature.