For film-cooling of a flat plate with cooling jets issuing from round holes, turbulent mixing has been shown to scale with the velocity ratio (VR). In this paper, large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to investigate the effect of varying blowing ratio (BR = 0.5 – 1.3), density ratio (DR = 1.1 – 2.1), and momentum-flux ratio (MR = 0.2–0.8) on adiabatic effectiveness and turbulence, while keeping the VR fixed at 0.46 and 0.63. Simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the realizable k-ϵ and shear-stress transport k-ω models were also performed. The LES results show that separation and spreading of the film-cooling jet increase as BR, DR, and MR increase while VR remains constant. For a given VR, the LES predicts an absolute difference between the minimum adiabatic effectiveness of the lowest and highest MRs to be 2 to 5 times greater than those predicted by RANS. This is because RANS with either model cannot respond appropriately to changes in MR. However, RANS can correctly predict that adiabatic effectiveness decreases as VR increases. The LES results show the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses near the film-cooling hole to change considerably with MRs at a constant VR, while turbulent heat flux changes negligibly. This suggests that while improved turbulence models for heat flux can improve RANS prediction of spreading, capturing trends, however, requires improved modeling of the Reynolds stresses.

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