Abstract

Thin film heat flux gauges (HFGs) have been used for several decades to measure surface temperatures and heat flux in test turbines with the majority being used in facilities that are short-duration. These gauges are typically composed of two resistive temperature devices deposited on opposing sides of a dielectric. However, because these sensors have been traditionally applied for measurements in short-duration, transient-type facilities, the challenges facing adaptation of this technology for a continuous-duration steady facility warrant investigation. Those challenges are highlighted, and solutions are presented throughout the paper. This paper describes the nanofabrication process for heat flux gauges and a new calibration method to address potential deterioration of gauges over long runtimes in continuous-duration facilities. Because a primary uncertainty of these sensors arises from the ambiguity of the thermal properties, special emphasis is placed on the property determination and potential errors due to improper thermal properties. Also, this paper presents a discussion on the use of impulse response theory to process the data showing the feasibility of the method for steady-duration facilities after an initial settling time. The latter portion of the paper focuses on comparing well-established heat flux gauges developed for short-duration turbine test facilities to recently developed gauges fabricated using modern nanofabrication techniques for a continuous turbine test facility. Using a commercially available heat flux gauge, capable of measuring a steady heat flux as a reference, the gauges were compared using the test case of an impinging jet over a range of Reynolds numbers. The comparison between the PSU gauge and the reference device indicated agreement within 14%, and similar results were achieved through comparison with established sensors from partner institutions.

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