It was well known that the radiation monitoring is an essential part of dealing with a nuclear accident safely. When a Nuclear-powered Vessel (NPV) was in the event of a nuclear accident at sea, the rescue vessels with different functions would rush to the scene of the accident to implement a rescue. In order to ensure the radiation safety of the emergency personnel aboard the rescue vessels, some kinds of radiation measuring devices should be installed and the ambient radiation levels should be measured. However, the occurrence of the nuclear accident at sea is few and unforeseeable, so the rescue vessels usually perform other ordinary works and are dispersed in different departments. Since that, the service efficiency of the fixed radiation measuring devices installed in the rescue vessels is low. What’s more, it is difficult keep all of them at a good condition. In order to resolve these contradictions, a new type of radiation monitoring system, which has been called as Area Radiation Monitoring System for the Nuclear Accident at Sea (ARMS), is proposed in this paper. With the application of Building Block Design, the ARMS becomes easy to be assembled and disassembled, so the centralized maintenance comes true. The ARMS has a more wide range of uses, not only for the nuclear accident emergency radiation monitoring at sea, but also for ordinary or emergency radiation monitoring for monitoring nuclear power plant and the Nuclear-powered Vessel harbor. The component and function of the monitoring system as well as its Data Transmission Networks are introduced in this paper.

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