Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is one of the mainstays of treatment for this disease (Niklason et al., 1999). Since artificial vascular grafts suitable for coronary bypass are not yet available, the autologous internal mammary artery (IMA) and saphenous vein are used to bypass diseased tissue (Niklason et al., 1999). While IMA grafts have high long-term patency rates, a saphenous vein grafted into the arterial position tends to stenose and eventually thrombose.

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