A three-dimensional radiation-heat-transfer analysis and a convection-heat-transfer analysis are combined in order to determine the temperature distribution in a rotating wafer in a cylindrical lamp heating apparatus for rapid thermal processing. The calculated results show that the temperature variation in the wafer increases 1.4 K by the effect of natural convection, when inlet gas velocity is 0.1 m/s during 1273 K steady-state heating of the non-rotating wafer. The effect of gas convection on the temperature variations in the wafer can be minimized when the wafer is rotating in an axisymmetric apparatus and the heating rates of the lamps are optimally controlled.

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