A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the frost formation and characteristics on a flat surface under natural convections. The process of frost formation and structures is visibly observed and measured by using of a microscope. The temperature distribution of the air around the frost layer is measured by using of the holographic interferometry technique. The influences of the main parameters are analyzed. Especially, the microscopic analysis of frost growth on the surface characteristics on the microscopic characteristics of a frost layer during the early growth period when sub-cooled droplets are formed and changed to the ice. The thickness and mass of frost layer are measured while frost formation is visualized simultaneously. The results show that the frost surface temperatures are much lower than the freezing temperature and close to the cold surface temperature at the early growth period. After the early growth period, the frost surface temperature is dominated by the convective heat transfer between the frost surface and surrounding air.

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