Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) was used to study the vortical structures resulting from a submerged water jet impinging normally on a smooth and flat surface. A fully developed turbulent jet, exiting a long pipe, and a semi-confined flow configuration ensured properly characterized boundary conditions, which allows for straightforward assessment of turbulence models and numerical schemes. The Reynolds number based on jet mean exit velocity was 23,000. The pipe-to-plate separation was varied between 2D and 7.6D. Turbulent velocity fields are presented using Reynolds decomposition into mean and fluctuating components. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis was used to identify the most energetic coherent structures of the turbulent flow field. Three velocity gradient-based vortex identification techniques, 2nd invariant Q, λ2, and swirling strength, were found to perform equally well in identifying vortical structures along the impingement wall. The results clearly demonstrate the shortcomings of local vorticity as a vortex identifier in an impinging jet flow field.

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