Fog formation occurs if the vapor pressure in the gas-phase is higher than the saturated vapor pressure and the bulk temperature is lower than its saturation temperature (supersaturated) for condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases. Generally, fogging is formation of entrained small droplets mixing in the vapor-gas stream, and the vapor condenses at the mist-flow and share-controlled flow regime. The phenomenon and mechanism of fogging need to be considered for determining condensation rate and separation of the condensate from vapor-gas phase for the down-stream process.

The experimental study of shell-side condensation using steam mixing with non-condensable air was conducted in a shell-side horizontal baffled tube bundle. Experimental data has been obtained including visualization findings using high-speed photograph. The characteristics of fog formation related to the heat and mas transfer performance are analyzed based on experimental data and observation. The general equation for determining fog formation (degree of supersaturation) is evaluated with experimental data. Results confirm that the transition band of fogging formation is in the range of S = 1.0 to 1.75. This paper presents experimental data and visualization findings on fogging characteristics and heat transfer performance for condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas.

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