Although 200 mm diameter wafers presently dominate the semiconductor market, 300 mm wafers are expected to be commonly used at the turn of the century. Larger wafer diameter is needed in order to increase the chip yield due to increase in chip size due to higher integration and performance of both memory (DRAM) and microprocessor (MPU) devices. mm diameter single crystals. As the crystal diameter is increased from 200 mm to 300 mm or larger, the size of the melt increases significantly leading to much more complex melt dynamics. Turbulent melt flow phenomena make the predictions and control of growth conditions very difficult. Understanding of the heat and mass transport in large melt systems is therefore critical to the growth and control of high-quality, large-diameter silicon single crystals. This paper examines various thermal-solutal issues related to Czochralski growth of 300 mm silicon crystals such as turbulence in the melt, heat transfer, oxygen transport and control, and the recent progress is reviewed.

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