For un-bonded (sliding) Pipe-In-Pipe (PIP) systems, one of the main components is the centralizers (also called spacers). The main functions of the centralizers are to centralize the inner pipe inside the outer pipe, to transfer the loads between inner pipe and outer pipe and to safeguard the insulation material in the annulus from excessive compression during fabrication, installation and operation.
Centralizers must also have good thermal insulation properties so that the heat loss is minimized. Different designs are now available for centralizers but the majority are based on two half shells which are bolted together. During fabrication, installation and operation, centralizers subject to different loads under which they are required to continue functioning properly.
This paper provides an overview of centralizer design aspects and then focuses on the loading history during installation using reeling method. The main contributing parameters to centralizer loading during reeled installation technique are discussed and conclusions are drawn. It is believed that this will enable Pipeline Engineers to select the most appropriate material and design for centralizers.