A 3D numerical two-phase flow model based on solving Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations has been used to simulate spilling breaking waves and steep waves past a monopile structure at a 1:10 slope. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to capture the free surface and the k–ω Shear-Stress Transport (k–ω SST) turbulence model is used to simulate the turbulence effects. Mesh and time-step refinement studies have been conducted. The numerical results of wave forces on the structure are compared with the experimental data from Irschik et al. (2004) to validate the numerical model, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the measured data. The wave forces on the structure at different KC numbers are discussed in terms of the generation of the slamming force. The secondary load cycles are observed after the wave front past the structure. The pressure and velocity distribution, as well as the characteristics of the vortices around the structure at four important instants, are studied.

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