In a minimally invasive percutaneous procedure like biopsy, brachytherapy, and tissue ablation, the inner soft tissue is accessed through surgical needle-puncture of the skin. This process reduces tissue damage and risk of infection and improves patient recovery time. However, its effectiveness depends on the needle’s ability to travel on a curved path, avoid obstacles, and maintain high targeting accuracy. Conventional needles are passive and have limited steerability and trajectory correction capability. This has motivated researchers to develop actuation mechanisms to create active needles. In this study, an innovative active steerable needle with a single shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator is designed, fabricated, and tested for maneuver. A closed-loop Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with position feedback is developed to control needle tip deflection in air and tissue-mimicking gels. The needle tip is deflected up to 5.75 mm in the air medium. In tissue-mimicking gel, it is deflected up to 15 mm in a predefined trajectory during a 100 mm insertion depth. Our results show that needle tip deflection control has an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.72 mm in the air and 1.26 mm in the tissue-mimicking gel. The trajectory tracking performance of the designed SMA actuated needle and its control system show the effectiveness of the active needle in the percutaneous procedures. Future work includes testing the needle’s performance in the biological tissues.

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