A Method to Calculate Pack Ice Driving Forces

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Evgin, C. Zhan

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5

R. M. W. Frederking

Institute for Engineering in the Canadian Environment, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OR6

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 117(2), 145-150 (May 01, 1995) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2827065 History: Received September 14, 1993; Revised September 20, 1994; Online December 17, 2007


A method is proposed to calculate pack ice driving forces. In order to develop the method, stress distributions in a circular ice floe are calculated for various boundary loading conditions. The analysis is carried out using a special-purpose finite element program in which Sinha’s creep equation is used to model the behavior of ice. Charts relating pack ice driving forces to stresses in the ice floe are produced for both linear elastic and creep equations for ice behavior. The results indicate that, for a short period of loading time and at low stress levels, a linear elastic analysis can be used to calculate the pack ice driving forces. However, when the stress levels in the ice floe are high or the time span of load application is long, linear and nonlinear analyses produce much different values for pack ice driving forces.

Copyright © 1995 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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