Technology Reviews

Review of State-Of-The-Art: Drag Forces on Submarine Pipelines and Piles Caused by Landslide or Debris Flow Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Arash Zakeri1

Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway; International Centre for Geohazards (ICG), Sognsveien 72, 0855, Oslo, Norwayarash.zakeri@geohazards.no


Corresponding author.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 131(1), 014001 (Nov 10, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2957922 History: Received December 04, 2007; Revised June 07, 2008; Published November 10, 2008

Submarine landslides and debris flows are among the most destructive geohazards, economically and environmentally, for installations on the seafloor. Estimating the drag forces caused by these geohazards is an important design consideration in offshore engineering. A summary of the major methods available for estimating the drag forces on pipelines and piles caused by a mass gravity soil movement has been presented and compared with one another. The methods available are limited in terms of the application and provide a wide range of estimates. There is significant room for improvement and new research to advance the state-of-the-art.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Bingham fluid and Newtonian fluid

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Figure 2

Geometric factor (Demars (4)), θ is the initial angle between the pipeline axis and seafloor contours, α is the deflection angle with respect to the pipe axis, L is the pipe length affected by the slide, and ΔL is the elongation

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Figure 3

Adhesion factor inferred from the pile shaft load transfer mechanism (8,22)

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Figure 4

Horizontal bearing capacity factor versus the depth of the burial to diameter Ratio: (left) clays and (right) sand (proposed by Audibert (7) and Summers and Nyman (9) for clays)

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Figure 5

Bearing capacity factor for laterally loaded pipes versus the relative depth. Φ is the soil internal angle of friction (Calvetti (11)).

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Figure 6

The k-parameter (Towhata and Al-Hussaini (13))

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Figure 7

Drag coefficient as a function of Froude number. In millimeters: ● D=12.7, d=3; ◼ D=25.4, d=3; ▼ D=25.4, d=3; ○ D=12.7, d=6; ▽ D=25.4, d=6; and ▽ D=38.1, d=6 (Chehata (17)).

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Figure 8

Drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number (Pfeiff and Hopfinger (19))



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