Offshore and Structural Mechanics

Heat Transfer Prediction of In-Service Welding in a Forced Flow of Fluid

[+] Author and Article Information
Per R. M. Lindström

Department of Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Swedenper.lindstrom@me.chalmers.se

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 131(3), 031304 (Jun 02, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3124126 History: Received February 13, 2008; Revised December 21, 2008; Published June 02, 2009

An algorithm for heat transfer prediction of in-service welding operations in a forced flow of fluid is presented. The algorithm presented is derived from Rosenthal’s 3D heat flow equation and boundary layer approximations. This was possible by the introduction of an apparent thermal conductivity kPL, which is a function of the boundary layer’s heat transfer coefficient αf and the base material’s thickness δ. This implies that a weld cooling time ΔtT1/T2 in a forced flow of fluid can now be calculated by an ordinary engineering calculator and thus enabling suitable welding parameters to be determined. The magnitude of kPL(αf,δ) was established by regression analysis of results from a parametric finite element analysis series of a total number of 112 numerical simulations. Furthermore, the result of the regression analysis was validated and verified by a welding experiment series accomplished on an in-house designed and constructed in-service welding rig. The principle design of the welding rig as well as its instrumentation, a PC based Data Acquisition system, is described. In addition, a method to measure the weld metals cooling time ΔtT1/T2 by means of thermocouple elements is described. Finally, the algorithm presented in this study proved feasible for industrial in-service welding operations of fine-grained Carbon and Carbon–Manganese steels with a maximum Carbon Equivalent (IIW) (CE) of 0.32.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

The geometry of FEM models used to solve the cooling time ΔtT1/T2 in 20 mm thick steel plates

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Figure 2

The figure indicates the 3D heat flow limit thickness δ3D of a steel plate at 20°C, compiled in Eq. 4

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Figure 3

The figure indicates the kPL function’s form; its resolution depends on the time-step frequency used (1 step/s)

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Figure 4

The figure indicates the graphs of the kPL function

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Figure 5

Cross section views of welding test coupons evaluated ∅ 89.9×5; ∅ 89.9×2.5; ∅ 48.3×4.5; ∅ 33.0×3.2; all measurements in millimeters



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