Research Papers: Materials Technology

Underwater Friction Stud Welding Optimal Parameter Estimation: Engineering Robust Design Based Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
R. M. Chandima Ratnayake

Department of Mechanical and Structural
Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger N-4036, Norway
e-mail: chandima.ratnayake@uis.no

H. O. Ytterhaug

Department of Mechanical and Structural
Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger N-4036, Norway
e-mail: hans_olav_ytterhaug@hotmail.com

P. Bogwald

Department of Mechanical and Structural
Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger N-4036, Norway
e-mail: pbogwald@gmail.com

S. T. R. Nilsen

Department of Mechanical and Structural
Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Stavanger,
Stavanger N-4036, Norway
e-mail: str.nilsen@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 4, 2014; final manuscript received August 25, 2014; published online September 25, 2014. Assoc. Editor: John Halkyard.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 137(1), 011401 (Sep 25, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: OMAE-14-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4028466 History: Received March 04, 2014; Revised August 25, 2014

Underwater friction stud welding (FRSW) without a shroud around the stud requires controlling welding parameters to achieve optimal joint strength. A hydraulic FRSW unit has been designed and fabricated to perform FRSW without a shroud via a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). An experimental study has been initiated to investigate the optimal FRSW parameter combinations and corresponding values leading to optimal ultimate tensile load capacity (UTLC) values in the welded joint. The engineering robust design (ERD) approach has been deployed to run the experiment. Each weld has been made with a S355 M12 stud on S355 structural steel plate. This paper discusses the experimental approach, results and conclusions reached in the parameter evaluation, estimation, and experimentation.

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Fig. 1

FRSW test rig: CAD model versus prototype

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Fig. 2

A container to create underwater conditions

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Fig. 3

A motor coupling to hold the stud and tightening of test stud into the motor coupling

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Fig. 4

Arrangement of stud and a sample plate in the FRSW test rig

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Fig. 5

An arrangement of the plate inside the water container on the hydraulic cylinder

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Fig. 6

Plots of parameter effects versus levels. (a) Pressure versus S/N ratio, (b) speed versus S/N ratio, (c) FT versus S/N ratio, and (d) HT versus S/N ratio.

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Fig. 7

Approximate positions of hardness measurement zones

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Fig. 8

Microstructure of the base plate

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Fig. 9

Microstructure at zone 3

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Fig. 10

Microstructure at zone 4

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Fig. 11

Microstructure at the extruded flash

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Fig. 12

Base metal zone of the stud



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