Research Papers: Ocean Space Utilization

Temporary-Creep and Postcreep Properties of Aquaculture Netting Materials With UHMWPE Fibers

[+] Author and Article Information
Heidi Moe-Føre

SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture,
Postboks 4762 Sluppen,
Trondheim 7465, Norway
e-mail: Heidi.Moe.Fore@sintef.no

Per Christian Endresen

SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture,
Postboks 4762 Sluppen,
Trondheim 7465, Norway
e-mail: Per.Christian.Endresen@sintef.no

Østen Jensen

SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture,
Postboks 4762 Sluppen,
Trondheim 7465, Norway
e-mail: Osten.Jensen@gmail.com

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 4, 2013; final manuscript received February 9, 2016; published online April 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Myung Hyun Kim.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 138(3), 031201 (Apr 06, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: OMAE-13-1065; doi: 10.1115/1.4032893 History: Received July 04, 2013; Revised February 09, 2016

This paper presents test results on temporary-creep properties, recovery of strain postcreep and postcreep tensile properties of a Raschel knitted netting material with a combination of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyester fibers. Specimens of the material were subjected to uniaxial loading over a period of 30 mins, at a constant creep target load of 10–90% of average tensile strength. The specimens were wet and tested in room temperature. The netting structure experienced creep strain with mean values in the range of 1.3–4.5%, increasing with increased creep target load. In addition, the netting experienced 2% creep strain during on-loading. The creep strains were elastic, while large proportions of the elongation accumulated during on-loading (structural strain of 8.8–27.8%) were long lasting and possibly permanent. Tensile tests showed that for the highest creep target load, strength, and elongation at break increased by 17%.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Naylor, R. , Hindar, K. , Fleming, I . A. , Goldburg, R. , Williams, S. , Volpe, J. , Whoriskey, F. , Eagle, J. , Kelso, D. , and Mangel, M. , 2005, “ Fugitive Salmon: Assessing the Risks of Escaped Fish From Net-Pen Aquaculture,” Bioscience, 55(5), pp. 427–437. [CrossRef]
Jensen, Ø. , Dempster, T. , Thorstad, E. B. , Uglem, I. , and Fredheim, A. , 2010, “ Norwegian Sea-Cage Aquaculture: Causes, Consequences, Prevention,” Aquacult. Environ. Interact., 1(1), pp. 71–83. [CrossRef]
Lucas, A. D. , Ambrosio, J. D. , Otaguro, H. , Costa, L. C. , and Agnelli, J. A. M. , 2011, “ Abrasive Wear of HDPE/UHMWPE Blends,” Wear, 270(9–10), pp. 576–583. [CrossRef]
Budinski, K. G. , 1997, “ Resistance to Particle Abrasion of Selected Plastics,” Wear, 203–204, pp. 302–309. [CrossRef]
Moe, H. , Dempster, T. , Sunde, L. M. , Winther, U. , and Fredheim, A. , 2007, “ Technological Solutions and Operational Measures to Prevent Escapes of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) From Sea Cages,” Aquacult. Res., 38(1), pp. 91–99. [CrossRef]
Moe, H. , Gaarder, R. H. , Olsen, A. , and Hopperstad, O. S. , 2009, “ Resistance of Aquaculture Net Cage Materials to Biting by Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua),” Aquacult. Eng., 40(3), pp. 126–134. [CrossRef]
Glaropoulos, A. , Papadakis, V . M. , Papadakis, I . E. , and Kentouri, M. , 2012, “ Escape-Related Behavior and Coping Ability of Sea Bream due to Food Supply,” Aquacult. Int., 20(5), pp. 965–979. [CrossRef]
Morris, D. S. , 1996, “ Seal Predation at Salmon Farms in Maine, An Overview of the Problem and Potential Solutions,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 30(2), pp. 39–43.
Sepulveda, M. , and Oliva, D. , 2005, “ Interactions Between South American Sea Lions Otaria Llavescens (Shaw) and Salmon Farms in Southern Chile,” Aquacult. Res., 36(11), pp. 1062–1068. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F. , and Jones, D. R. H. , 1980, Engineering Materials 1, Pergamont Press, Oxford, UK.
Moe, H. , Hopperstad, O. S. , Olsen, A. , Jensen, Ø. , and Fredheim, A. , 2009, “ Temporary Creep and Post Creep Properties of Aquaculture Netting Materials,” Ocean Eng., 36, pp. 992–1002. [CrossRef]
Moe, H. , Olsen, A. , Hopperstad, O. S. , Jensen, Ø. , and Fredheim, A. , 2007, “ Tensile Properties for Netting Materials used in Aquaculture Net Cages,” Aquacult. Eng., 37(3), pp. 252–265. [CrossRef]
Moe, H. , Fredheim, A. , and Hopperstad, O. S. , 2010, “ Structural Analysis of Aquaculture Net Cages in Current,” J. Fluids Struct., 26(3), pp. 503–516. [CrossRef]
Kristiansen, T. , and Faltinsen, O. M. , 2012, “ Modelling of Current Loads on Aquaculture Net Cages,” J. Fluids Struct., 34, pp. 218–235. [CrossRef]
Murthy, N. S. , and Bray, R. G. , 2003, “ Structure and Properties of Polyamide 6 and 4-Aminomethylcyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Copolymers With an Unusually Short Helical Pitch for Nylons,” Polymer, 44(18), pp. 5387–5396. [CrossRef]
Buchanan, D. R. , and Walters, J. P. , 1977, “ Glass-Transition Temperatures of Polyamide Textile Fibers, Part I: The Effects of Molecular Structure, Water, Fibre Structure, and Experimental Technique,” Text. Res. J., 47, pp. 398–406.
Kromm, F. X. , Lorriot, T. , Coutand, B. , Harry, R. , and Quenisset, J. M. , 2003, “ Tensile and Creep Properties of Ultra High Molecular Weight PE Fibres,” Polym. Test., 22(4), pp. 463–470. [CrossRef]
Vlasblom, M. P. , and Bosman, R. L. M. , 2006, “ Predicting the Creep Lifetime of HMPE Mooring Rope Applications,” OCEANS 2006, Boston, MA, Sept. 18–21.
Klust, G. , 1982, Netting Materials for Fishing Gear, Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, UK.
Standards Norway, 2009, NS 9415 Marine Fish Farms—Requirements for Site Survey, Risk Analyses, Design, Dimensioning, Production, Installation and Operation.
The International Organization for Standardization, 2002, ISO 1806 Fishing Nets–Determination of Mesh Breaking Force of Netting.
The International Organization for Standardization, 1997, ISO 291 Plastics–Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing.
BISFA (The International Bureau for the Standardisation of Man-Made Fibres), 2004, Testing Methods for Polyamide Filament Yarns.
The International Organization for Standardization, 1976, ISO 3790 Method of Test for Determination of Elongation of Netting Yarns.
The International Organization for Standardization, 2002, ISO 1107 Fishing Nets—Netting—Basic Terms and Definitions.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Section of tensile test specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Relative total strain as a function of creep time. Mean values with standard deviation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Creep strain as a function of the logarithm of creep time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mean strain rate as a function of creep time (double logarithmic scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Relative strain postcreep as a function of recovery time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Relative strain at the end of the creep period and postcreep as a function of relative creep target load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Force-normalized elongation relations 7 days postcreep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Normalized elongation at break for netting subjected to various creep loads (mean values with standard deviation)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Force at break for netting subjected to various creep loads (mean values with standard deviation)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In